Works Cited


METHODS

Emerson J, Esty D, Levy M, Kim C, Mara V, de Sherbinin A, Srebotnjak T. 2010. 2010 Environmental Performance Index. New Haven: Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy.

Esty D, Levy M, Kim C, de Sherbinin A, Srebotnjak T, Mara V. 2008. 2008 Environmental Performance Index.  New Haven: Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy.

Singh R, Murty H, Gupta S, Dikshit A. 2009.  An overview of sustainability assessment methodologies. Ecological Indicators. 9(2): 189-212.

Species and Country Selection

FAO. Fisheries Department, Fishery Information, Data and Statistics Unit 2000. 2008. FishStat Plus. Universal software for fishery statistical time series. Version 2.3. [Software]. Available from: http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/software/fishstat/en

INDICATORS

Antibiotics

Burka J, Hammell K, Horsberg T, Johnson G, Rainnie D, Speare D. 1997. Drugs in salmonid aquaculture—a review. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 20(5): 333-349.

Burridge LE, Weis J, Cabello F, Pizarro J. 2008b. Chemical use in salmon aquaculture: a review of current practices and possible environmental effects. WWF Report. [Internet] [cited 2009 June 11]. 84 pp. Available from: www.worldwildlife.org/what/globalmarkets/aquaculture/WWFBinaryitem8842.pdf

Cabello F. 2006. Heavy use of prophylactic antibiotics in aquaculture: a growing problem for human and animal health and for the environment. Environmental Microbiology. 8(7): 1,137-1,144.

Christensen A, Ingersley F, Baun A. 2006. Ecotoxicity of mixtures of antibiotics use in aquacultures. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 25(8): 2,208-2,215.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Health Organisation (WHO), World Organisation for Animal Health (WHO). 2008. In: Joint FAO/WHO/OIE Expert Meeting on Critically Important Antimicrobials; 2007 November 26-30; Rome, Italy.

Hektoen H, Berge JA, Hormazabal V, Yndestad M. 1995. Persistence of antibacterial agents in marine sediments. Aquaculture. 133(3-4): 175-184.

Holten Lützhøft H,  Halling-Sørensen B, Jørgensen S. 1999. Algal toxicity of antibacterial agents applied in Danish fish farming. Archives of Environment Contamination and Toxicology. 36(1): 1-6.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

Ackefors H, Enell M. 1990. Discharge of nutrients from Swedish fish farming to adjacent sea areas. Ambio. 19(1): 28-35.

Barg UC. 1992. Guideline for the promotion of management of coastal aquaculture development. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 328. 122 pp.

Boyd C. 2009. Estimating mechanical aeration requirement in shrimp ponds from the oxygen demand of feed. In: Proceedings of the World Aquaculture Society Meeting; 2009 Sept 25-29; VeraCruz, Mexico.

Google Inc. 2009. Google Earth. (Version 5.1.3533.1731) [Software]. Available from: http://earth.google.com/

Gowen RJ, Weston DP, Ervik A. 1991. Aquaculture and the benthic environment. In: Cowey CB, Cho CY, editors. Nutritional Strategies and Aquaculture Waste. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Nutritional Strategies in Management of Aquaculture Waste (NSMAW), Dept. of Nutritional Science, Univ. of Guelph, Ontario. Pp 187-206.

Ministry of Agriculture and Lands. 2005. A comparison of B.C.’s current licensing and regulatory requirements with other jurisdictions [Internet]. Victoria (BC); [cited 2009 Nov 9]. 1 p. Available from: http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/fisheries/Finfish/reg_comparisons.htm

Sarà G. 2007a. A meta-analysis on the ecological effects of aquaculture on the water column: Dissolved nutrients. Marine Environmental Research. 63: 390-408.

Sarà G. 2007b. Ecological effects of aquaculture on living and non-living suspended fractions of the water column: A meta-analysis. Water Research. 41: 3,187-3,200.

Sarà G, Scilipoti D, Milazzo M, Modica A. 2006. Use of stable isotopes to investigate dispersal of waste from fish farms as a function of hydrodynamics. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 313: 261-270.

Wu RSS. 1995. The environmental impact of marine fish culture: towards a sustainable future. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 31(4-12): 159-166.

Capture-Based Aquaculture

Fish Source. 2010. [Internet]. San Francisco (CA). Sustainable Fisheries Partnership. [cited 2010 February 15]. Available from: http://www.fishsource.org

Lovatelli A, Holthus P, editors. 2008. Capture-based aquaculture. Global overview. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 508. 298 pp.

Ottolenghi F, Silvestri C, Giordano P, Lovatelli A, New M. 2004. Capture-based aquaculture. The fattening of eels, groupers, tunas and yellowtails. Rome, Italy, FAO. 308 pp.

Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Liu M. 2008. Environmental and biodiversity impacts of capture-based aquaculture. In Lovatelli  A, Holthus PF, editors. Capture-based aquaculture. Global overview. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 508. Rome, Italy, FAO. Pp 5-39.

Antifoulants (Copper)

Ahsanullah M, Williams A. 1991. Sublethal effects and bioaccumulation of cadmium, chromium, copper, and zinc in the marine amphipod Allorchestes compressa. Marine Biology. 108(1): 59-65.

Bechmann R. 1994. Use of life tables and LC50 tests to evaluate chronic and acute toxicity effects of copper on the marine copepod Tisbe furcata (Baird). Environmental Toxicology Chemistry. 13(9): 1,509-1,517.

Braithwaite R, Cadavid Carrascosa M, McEvoy L. 2007. Biofouling of salmon cage netting and the efficacy of a typical copper-based antifoulant. Aquaculture. 262(2-4): 219-226.

Burridge LE, Haya K, Waddy S. 2008a. The effects of repeated exposure to azamethiphos on survival and spawning in the American lobster (Homarus americanus). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 69(3): 411-415.

Chou C, Haya K, Paon L, Burridge L, Moffatt J. 2002. Aquaculture-related trace metals in sediments and lobsters and relevance to environmental monitoring program ratings for near-field effects. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 44(11): 1,259-1,268.

Fernandez N, Beiras R. 2001. Combined toxicity of dissolved mercury with copper, lead, and cadmium on embryogenesis and early larval growth of the Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin. Ecotoxicology. 10(5): 263-271.

Franklin N, Stauber J, Lim R. 2001. Development of flow cytometry-based algal bioassays for assessing toxicity of copper in natural waters. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 20(1): 160-170.

Webster N, Webb R, Ridd M, Hill R, Negri A. 2001. The effects of copper on the microbial community of a coral reef sponge. Environmental Microbiology. 3(1): 19-29.

Ecological Energy

Deutsch L, Gräslund S, Folke C, Huitric M, Kautsky N, Troell M, Lebel L. 2007. Feeding aquaculture growth through globalization; exploitation of marine ecosystems for fishmeal. Global Environmental Change. 17(2): 238-249.

Kristofersson D, Anderson J. 2006. Is there a relationship between fisheries and farming? Inter-dependence of fisheries, animal production and aquaculture. Marine Policy. 30(6): 721-725.

Naylor RL, Goldburg RJ, Mooney H, Beveridge MCM, Clay J, Folke C, Kautsky N, Lubchenco J, Primavera JH, Williams M. 1998. Nature’s subsidies to shrimp and salmon farming. Science. 282(5,390): 883-884.

Naylor RL, Goldberg RJ, Primavera JH, Kautsky N, Beveridge MCM, Clay J, Folke C, Lubchenco J, Mooney H, Troell M. 2000. Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature. 405: 1,017-1,024.

Tacon A, Metian M. 2008. Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: Trends and future prospects. Aquaculture. 285(1-4): 146-158.

Tyedmers P. Salmon and sustainability: The biophysical cost of producing salmon through the commercial salmon fishery and the intensive salmon culture industry [PhD thesis]. University of British Columbia; 2000.

Escapes

Araki H, Cooper B, Blouin MS. 2007. Genetic Effects of Captive Breeding Cause a Rapid, Cumulative Fitness Decline in the Wild. Science. 318 (5,847): 100-103.

Copp G, Vilizzi L, Cooper D, South A. 2007. MFISK: Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit. [Internet]. Lowestoft (Suffolk): Cefas Salmon & Freshwater Fisheries Team; [cited 2009 September 19]. Available from: http://www.cefas.co.uk/projects/risks-and-impacts-of-non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx

Costa-Pierce BA. 2002. Ecology as the paradigm for the future of aquaculture. In: Costa-Pierce BA, editor. Ecological Aquaculture: The Evolution of the Blue Revolution. Malden (MA): Blackwell Science. pp 339-372.

Fisheries and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 1995. Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. Food and Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 41 pp.

International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). 2005. Code of Practice on the Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms. ICES Co-operative Research Report. 30 pp.

Naylor RL, Hindar K, Fleming IA, Goldberg R, Williams S, Volpe J, Whoriskey F, Eagle J, Kelso J, Mangel M. 2005. Fugitive Salmon: Assessing the Risks of Escaped Fish from Net-Pen Aquaculture. Bioscience. 55 (5): 427-437.

Pullin R, Sumaila U. 2005. Aquaculture. In:  Kooiman J, Bavinck M, Jentoft S, Pullin R, editors. Fish for Life: Interactive Governance for Fisheries. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam. pp 93-108.

Industrial Energy

Ayer N, Tyedmers P. 2009. Assessing alternative aquaculture technologies: life cycle assessment of salmonid culture systems in Canada. Journal of Cleaner Production. 17(3): 362-373.

Pelletier N, Tyedmers P, Sonesson U, Scholz A, Ziegler F, Flysjo A, Kruse S, Cancino B, Silverman H. 2009. Not all salmon are created equal: life cycle assessment (LCA) of global salmon farming systems. Environment Science and Technology. 43(23): 8,730-8,736.

Parasiticides

Bright D, Dionne S. 2005. Use of emamectin benzoate in the Canadian finfish aquaculture industry: A review of environmental fate and effects. Prepared for Environment Canada Environmental Protection Branch. 74 pp.

Burridge LE, Haya K, Waddy SL. 2008a. The effect of repeated exposure to azamethiphos on survival and spawning in the American lobster (Homarus americanus). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 69(3): 411-415.

Burridge LE, Weis J, Cabello F, Pizarro J. 2008b. Chemical use in salmon aquaculture: A review of current practices and possible environmental effects. [Internet]. WWF Report. [cited 2009 June 11]. 84 pp. Available from: www.worldwildlife.org/what/globalmarkets/aquaculture/WWFBinaryitem8842.pdf

Jones M, Sommerville C, Wootten R. 1997. Reduced sensitivity of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis to the organophosphate dichlorvos. Journal of Fish Diseases. 15: 197-202.

Mayor D, Solan M, Martinez I, Murray L, McMillan H, Paton G, Killham K. 2008. Acute toxicity of some treatments commonly used by the salmonid aquaculture industry to Corophium volutator and Hediste diversicolor: Whole sediment bioassay tests. Aquaculture. 285: 102-108.

[SEPA] Scottish Environmental Protection Agency. 1999. Emamectin benzoate, an environmental assessment. pp 1-23. (cited in Burridge et al. 2008b)

Pathogens

Christensen, V, Walters C. 2004. Ecopath with Ecosim: methods, capabilities and limitations. Ecological Modelling. 172: 109-139.

Christensen V, Walters C, Ahrens R, Alder J, Buszowski J, Christensen LB, Cheung WWL, Dunne J, Froese R, Karpouzi V, et al. 2009. Database-driven models of the world’s large marine ecosystems. Ecological Modelling. 220: 1,984-1,996.

Collins JD, Wall P. 2004. Food safety and animal production systems: controlling zoonoses at farm level. Revue  Scientifique et Technique. 23(2): 685-700.

Environment News Service. 2005. Norwegian fish farm escapees place wild salmon at risk. [Internet]. [cited 2009 June 29]. Available from: http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/may2005/2005-05-12-02.asp

Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO). 2006. State-of-Knowledge Presentation for the Special Committee on Sustainable Aquaculture of the British Columbia Legislature. [Internet]. Vancouver (BC); [cited 2009 Jun 29].  Available from: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/327248.pdf

Johnsen B, Jensen A. 1991. The Gyrodactylus story in Norway. Aquaculture. 98(1-3): 289-302.

Krkosek M, Ford J, Morton A, Lele S, Myers R, Lewis M. 2007. Declining wild salmon populations in relation to parasites from farm salmon. Science. 318(5,857): 1,772-1,775.

McVicar A. 1997. Disease and parasite implications of the coexistence of wild and cultured Atlantic salmon populations. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 54(6): 1,093-1,103.

Phillip A. 2009. Salmon disease confirmed at third Scottish fish farm. The Scotsman. [modified 2009 20 March; cited 2009 29 June 29]. Available from: http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/nature/Salmon-disease-confirmed-at-third.5095298.jp

Sustainability of Feed

Deutsch L, Gräslund S, Folke C, Huitric M, Kautsky N, Troell M, Lebel L. 2007. Feeding aquaculture growth through globalization; exploitation of marine ecosystems for fishmeal. Global Environmental Change. 17(2): 238-249.

Fish Source [Internet]. 2010. Sustainable Fisheries Partnership; c2010. [cited 2010 February 15]. Available from: http://www.fishsource.org

Kristofersson D, Anderson J. 2006. Is there a relationship between fisheries and farming? Inter-dependence of fisheries, animal production and aquaculture. Marine Policy. 30(6): 721-725.

Naylor RL, Goldburg RJ, Mooney H, Beveridge MCM, Clay J, Folke C, Kautsky N, Lubchenco J, Primavera JH, Williams M. Nature’s subsidies to shrimp and salmon farming. 1998. Science. 282(5,390): 883-884.

Naylor RL, Goldberg RJ, Primavera JH, Kautsky N, Beveridge MCM, Clay J, Folke C, Lubchenco J, Mooney H, Troell M. 2000. Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature. 405: 1,017-1,024.

Tacon A, Metian M. 2008. Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: Trends and future prospects. Aquaculture. 285(1-4): 146-158.

Tyedmers P. 2000. Salmon and sustainability: The biophysical cost of producing salmon through the commercial salmon fishery and the intensive salmon culture industry [PhD thesis]. Vancouver: University of British Columbia.