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Fish meal and fish oil continue to play an integral role in fulfilling the nutritional requirements of aquacultureraised species (Deutsch et al. 2007; Kristofersson and Anderson 2006; Naylor et al. 1998; Naylor et al. 2000; Tacon and Metian 2008), particularly for carnivorous species fed compound feeds. Tacon and Metian (2008) estimate that in 2006 the aquaculture sector consumed the equivalent of 16.6 million tonnes of small pelagic forage fish by way of consuming 3,724,000 tonnes of fish meal and 835,000 tonnes of fish oil.
Seven of the 10 largest global fisheries (by weight) are reduction fisheries, which means that the product of these fisheries is not destined for direct human consumption. Numerous and significant ecological impacts have been linked to these reduction fisheries and their increasing appropriation of marine productivity (Naylor et al. 1998). The targets of reduction fisheries tend to be fish species that not only constitute major components of marine ecosystems but also comprise the primary prey of economically important wild fish species.
FEED = ∑(Feed Species Proportion x Feed Species Sustainability Score ) xFeed Species Proportion = The fish meal and fish oil components of feed. This takes into account the species, country or origin, and proportion of each component in the final feed formulation.
Fish In:Fish Out Ratio x mT Fish Produced
Sustainability Score = (Harvest Performance) x (Stock Status) x (Management Score)
Fish In:Fish Out Ratio = Calculated as the pelagic equivalent inputs to farmed fish outputs (kg wild fish inputs: kg farmed fish outputs) (Tacon and Metian 2008)
Units: Gauge of feed sustainability (unitless)
Sample Normalised Calculation: Barramundi from Australia, 2007
The Sustainability Score calculation for fish meal and fish oil ingredients is the same formula used to determine the Sustainability Score of wild fish inputs in the capture-based aquaculture indicator (CAP). The Sustainability Score of the fisheries supplying feed for an aquaculture system is the product of three factors: harvest performance, stock status, and an assessment of the management regime for that particular fishery. These three measures are multiplied so that final Sustainability Scores most effectively show the differences in performance between best and worst performance. (See the FAQ for more detailed information on calculating the Sustainability Score)
GAPI employed the following decision rules to treat gaps in feed sustainability data: