Victoria Harbour c. 1884 Detail from Harper's New Monthly Magazine.
British Columbia 1849-1885
Objectives: There are four broad objectives to this course: 1) To provide students with information and tools to place contemporary issues in the context of British Columbia's past. 2) To explore the larger dimensions of historical analysis through the avenues of local and regional history. 3) To develop skills to think historically and critically. 4) The course emphasizes the use and analysis of primary historical documents and artifacts in order to refine research, analytical and writing skills required in historical and other kinds of analysis.
Themes: This course provides an overview of the important political, social and economic changes in the territory that became British Columbia. It also focuses on three particular themes: dislocation and relocation – the creation of a multi-ethnic society by dislocating the indigenous population; racism and state formation in a colonial context; and the environmental transformation of British Columbia. These themes will also help place the course in a comparative context.
Using the first theme as the access point we will follow the transformation of the territory from an aboriginal province to a multi-ethnic - multi-racial society in which immigrants and not natives dominated. Since aboriginal people were the majority of the population of the territory until 1885, aboriginal history and the history of aboriginal-non-aboriginal relations plays a large role in this period as does the relations between different settler groups.
The second theme, racism and state formation, examines the multi-faceted way that aboriginal territory became re-framed as a white settler colony. This looks at the formation of the justice system, the establishment of schools, the reordering of the land, and the appropriation of resources through the fur trade, gold rush and industrialization.
The third theme looks at how the environment of British Columbia shaped its history and how the human history has reshaped the environment.
Format: The course follows a lecture-seminar format in which (normally) Tuesday’s classes will a lecture, sometimes happening off campus. Fridays after the first few weeks, will be discussion. This is not an invariable rule so check the outline regularly. Readings are assigned as background for both seminars and lectures and students should be prepared to discuss the readings in both types of classes.
Assignments and Evaluation: The final evaluation will be the sum of three separate grades; participation worth 25%, a 2,500-3,500 word research assignment worth 35%; and a final exam worth 40%.
Travel: There will be several course outings which are scheduled in class time and which are not optional. These include field trips and some off-campus lectures. There is a total cost for these outings of $20 which has to be paid to the instructor by January 22. If you absolutely cannot afford this speak to me about an alternative arrangement.
1. Tue. Jan. 5. Introductions
2. Fri. Jan. 8. Nature over Man
3. Tue. Jan. 13. Aboriginal British Columbia
4. Fri. Jan. 15. The Skin Trade Comes to Eden
5. Tue. Jan. 19. Shifting Ground - the Colonial State
6. Fri. Jan. 22. Seminar 1: Aboriginal--Non-Aboriginal Relations
Reading: See seminar list.
7. Tue. Jan. 26 The Gold Colonies
8. Fri. Jan. 29. Seminar 2a: Many Views of the Chilcotin War. Critically Evaluating Evidence.
10. Fri. Feb. 5. Seminar 2: Many Views of the Chilcotin War. Scholarly vs Popular History.
11. Tue. Feb. 9. Laying the Groundwork: Political and Social Institutions.
>Meet in the Court Room at Maritime Museum, Bastion Square 2:45<
>> RESEARCH ASSIGNMENT OUTLINE AND BIBLIOGRAPHY DUE <<
12. Fri. Feb. 12 Seminar 3a: Who Killed William Robinson? Workshop on Critically Reading Documents,
13. Tue. Feb. 16. READING BREAK
14. Fri. Feb. 19 READING BREAK
15. Tue. Feb. 23. The C.P.R. and Annihilation of Space and Time
16. Fri. Feb. 26. Seminar 3b: Who Killed William Robinson?
Workshop on Critically Reading Documents
17. Tue. Mar. 2. Remaking Indians
>Meet at St Ann’s Academy, 835 Humboldt, 2:45<
18. Fri. Mar. 5. Seminar 4 : Race and Racialization
Reading: See seminar list.
19. Tue. Mar. 9. Guest Lecturer: Kim Recalma Clutesi, Adam Dick, Daisy Sewid Smith
20. Fri. Mar. 12. Seminar 5: Critically Evaluating Oral History
Reading: See seminar list
21. Tue. Mar. 16. Dislocation – Relocation: Indian policy and Immigration
22. Fri. Mar. 19. The White Man’s Province
>> RESEARCH ASSIGNMENT DUE <<
>Meet at Craigdarroch Castle, 1050 Joan Crescent, 2:45<
24. Fri. Mar. 26. Seminar 6: Critically Reading Historical Photos
Reading: See seminar list
25. Tue. Mar. 30. Spoiled Child of Confederation
26. Fri. Apr. 2. CLASS CANCELLED GOOD FRIDAY
27. Tue. Apr. 6. BC at the Fin de Siecle and Conclusion
Seminar Readings - History 354-B 2010
The readings for the seminars will be available electronically from the class website at http://web.uvic.ca/~jlutz/courses/hist354b/
You must have prepared at the beginning of every seminar, an admission ticket which answers the Admission Question for that seminar. Your answer should be a thoughtful page. These will be handed in at the end of the seminar and reviewed as part of your participation grade but will not be separately graded. Without an admission ticket you will not be considered present.
1. Aboriginal--Non-Aboriginal Relations (These Readings in Reading Rooms).
Be prepared to discuss the following questions:
1) What is the main argument of each of the readings? Admission Question.
2) To what degree did Aboriginal People participate in making the history described in each reading?
3) In what degree did Aboriginal People control their encounter with Europeans in the readings?
4) How did Aboriginal People and immigrants manifest their power.
5) Is there a point when immigrant power overcomes aboriginal power or was the encounter between Aboriginal People and immigrants a “fatal confrontation” which doomed Aboriginal People from the start?
2a The Chilcotin War?
Documents on the web at: http://www.canadianmysteries.ca We Do Not Know His Name
Give yourself a few hours to examine a wide range of the primary documents on this site. You may particularly want to pay particular attention to:
Colonial Correspondence, Survivor's Accounts and Newspaper Accounts in the War Section, under Death of a Road Crew, especially:
the Aftermath Section under Trials
Matthew Baillie Begbie, Begbie to the Governor of British Columbia Including Notes Taken by the Court at the Trial of 6 Indians, September 30, 1864 and the tesitmony of Ahan, Lutas and Ach-pic-e-mous in the Ahan and Lutas trials.
1) What would you say was the specific causes of the attacks on the road crew? Was it a case of robbery, revenge, a war of resistance, random violence or...? Admission Question
2) Looking at the section on Tsilhqot’in culture and the evidence from the Tsilhqot’in in the trial notes (Aftermath Section) what was their perspective on war or murder?
3) If it was a war who won?
2.b Scholarly vs Popular History – the Chilcotin War
Articles in Course Pack and website interpretations
1) How would you classify each of the articles you have read in terms of the kind of source they are: primary, secondary, scholarly, and/or popular?
2) Using examples from the readings, what is the difference between popular and scholarly history? Admission Question.
3) Given the conflicting accounts in the primary documents and the various interpretations in the secondary accounts how do we know which to attach the most credibility to?
4) The province has apologized for the hanging of the Chilcotin Chiefs and raised a plaque to mark the event. Do think the governments should have done this. Should they officially pardon the convicted Tsilhqot’in?
5) Look at the interpretations by Glavin,the Tsilhqot’in, Lutz, Hewlett and Rothenberg on the website. Which do you agree most with. You will need the following to access the interpetations:
3a. Who Killed William Robinson?
Give yourself a few hours to examine the primary documents on this site.
Be prepared to discuss the following questions:
1) Who killed William Robinson? What were the motives for the murder? Admission Question.
2) What evidence do your base you conclusions on? How did you deal with the contradictory evidence, for example, the Judge's and the newspaper account of the trial vs the letter about the trial by William Smithe [Letter to Editor, British Colonist, June 5, 1869 in Aftermath] or the contradictory evidence about the axe from the trial itself? Define the criteria you used to attach credibility to historical sources.
3) Read the Contemporary Theories in the Murder Section. Do any of these make sense to you? What are the logical problems in them?
4) What are the weaknesses of the historical record in deciding what went on in this case?
5) What does the study of the trial tell us about the possibility of finding Atruth@ in history? If historians do not seek truth what should they seek?
3b. Who Killed William Robinson?
Expand your examination to look at the Giles Curtis and Stonecutter Murder found in the Contexts section under Other Murders. Look too at Whippings and Hangings.
1) What does the trial of Tshuanahusset tell us about power in colonial society? What, if any, were the impediments to a fair trial?
2) What are the common features in the Robinson, Giles Curtis and Stone Cutter
Murders What are the differences? Do they point to a single or multiple murderers?
3) Who lived on Salt Spring Island in 1868? How did they live? Was it a violent society? Was it a racist society? [ See contexts - especially maps.]
4) Who lived on Salt Spring Island in 1881? How had the island population changed? Do the murders have anything to do with the population change? [ See contexts - especially maps. If you have trouble opening the maps look for them in the archives section.] Admission Question.
5) Which of the arguments in the Interpretations section do you agree most with? You will need these passwords:
The research assignment must be based, at least in part, on primary sources - ie. sources that were created at the time the essay focuses on. It may be an essay, a website, a tour, exhibit or other research project. Many of you will want to use the BC Archives for this research. An orientation to the archives will be provided to those who are interested, outside of class time. Two copies of a preliminary outline and bibliography are to be submitted Tuesday, February 9th and two copies of the essay Friday, March 19th. The penalty for late outlines/papers is 1% a day. In each case, one copy will be in print and the other digital. The final essay (not the outline) will be submitted via Turnitin.com.
Turnitin Class id is: 3052441
Plagiarism: The assignments must be original work. They may of course, draw upon other scholar's work, but there is a difference between the acknowledged use of another's ideas or research and plagiarism, the unacknowledged restatement of another's ideas and material in the guise of original work. Plagiarism is a form of academic misconduct which the university penalizes with sanctions ranging from a failing grade on the assignment to suspension from the university. Remember that the academic community takes plagiarism very seriously. Cite all direct quotations of even a few words, and even when you draw on other people's interpretations, please be sure to cite your sources. You will be creating your own secondary source -- your own history -- in writing this paper, based on your own research in primary and secondary sources.