Instructor: John Lutz
Welcome to the second term of History 358C. The format of the second term will look a lot like that in the first term. Tuesdays will generally be a day for seminars, guests or films. Wednesdays will generally be a one and a half to two hour lecture class, often with time for class discussion. Readings are assigned as background for both seminars and lectures and students should be prepared to discuss the readings in both types of classes.
TEXTS: The text will continue to be Olive Dickason, Canada's First Nation's. Two additional texts required this term will Bridget Moran, ed. Stony Creek Woman: the Story of Mary John (Tillacum, 1991) and Taiaiake Alfred, Peace, Power Righteousness: An Indigenous Manifesto, (Oxford, 1999).
ASSIGNMENTS AND EVALUATION: In the first term a mixture of assignments and participation accounted for 47.5% of the grade for the whole course. The remaining 52.5% will be made up in this term on the following basis.
Class and Group Participation: 7.5%
Writing Assignments: 30%
Final Exam: 15%
TOTAL FOR TERM: 52.5%
Numerical scores are converted into letter grades using the university
standard: A+ 100-90 B 70-74 C 55-59
You have two options under the category of writing assignments.
Option 1: A 3-4,000 word research paper on some aspect of aboriginal-non aboriginal relations in Canada over the past 1,000 years. The assignment must make use of some primary sources, it must critically evaluate all the sources you use, and it must contain some analyses beyond a narration. It must have a thesis, an introduction and conclusion. Two copies of the bibliography and outline are due on February 15 at the beginning of class, worth 5%. One copy will be handed back with comments. The essay is worth 25% of the term grade.
Option 2: Two 1,500-2,000 word essays, each based on one of the supplementary texts, Stony Creek Woman and Peace, Power and Righteousness, each worth 15%. You will be able to choose from a list of questions and write an extended answer, each answer drawing on the text and at least two other scholarly history books/articles that relate to the topic you have chosen.
The assignments must be original work submitted for this course only. They may draw upon other scholars' work, but there is a difference between the acknowledged use of another's ideas or research and PLAGIARISM, the unacknowledged restatement of another's ideas and material in the guise of original work. Plagiarism is a form of academic misconduct which the university penalizes with sanctions ranging from a failing grade on the assignment to suspension from the university. See the university policy on pp 19-20 of the calendar.
READINGS: Assigned readings are an integral part of the course. They come from the texts as well as supplementary readings that are on reserve in two locations: the Library Reserve Reading Room and in the History Reading Room. There may be additions or changes to the reading list as new readings come available.
DISCUSSION GROUPS: In the same manner as last semester, we will break up into groups at different points during the term. You will also be asked to hand in the admission ticket, a statement of the thesis of each article. As with last term, these are a pre-requisite to getting a participation mark for the discussion session, but they will not be marked. The exception will be the discussion on the different views of the Chilcotin War, in which I will ask you to respond to questions but not to offer thesis statements.
IMPORTANT DATES: (All assignments due at the beginning of class except the final exam which is due by 4:00 on the stated day)
February 15: Option 1: Bibliography and Essay Outline Due.
Option 2: Stony Creek Woman Assignment Due.
March 14: Option 1: Research Essay Due.
March 21: Option 2: Peace, Power and Righteousness Assignment Due.
April 5: Take Home Exams Distributed.
April 12: Take Home Exams Due at History Office at 4pm.
All due dates are firm. Late assignments will be penalized 2% a day with the exception of the final exam where the penalty will be 5% per day. No extensions are available except for documented medical or family emergencies.
1. Tuesday 11 Introduction.
2. Wednesday 12 Extending Dominion
Reading: Dickason, Chap 17, 18
- "Indian" policy in the Canadas
- "Indian" policy of the HBC - the Pacific Northwest
Canada's Western Colony
3. Tuesday 18 Development of Federal Indian Policy: The Indian Act
Reading: Dickason, Chap 19
- Superintending the Songhees
4. Wednesday 19 Discussion Groups: Different Views of the "Chilcotin War"
INQUEST: 21 May 1864 at murder camp, 23 May at Homathco.
Bruce McKelvie, "The Chilcotin War," Tales of Conflict (Surrey: Heritage house, 1985) 88-95
Terry Glavin and the People of Nemiah, Nemiah, The Unconquered Country... selected Pages.
Alfred, "Power " Peace, Power and Righteousness, 41-44.
5. Tuesday 25 Film: Big Bear
6. Wednesday 26 Negotiation and Resistance
Reading: Dickason, Chap 20, 21,
Alfred, "Native American Political Traditions 1-30."
a) The numbered Treaties
b) Big Bear, Poundmaker
c) the Northwest Rebellion; the Okanagan and the Indian Wars in Washington
d) BC Reserve Commission
7. Tuesday 1st Canadian Indians on the Capitalist Frontier:
- Plains Peoples and Ojibway
- British Columbia
8. Wednesday 2 The Christian Connection - Natives and Missionaries
- laws against the potlatch
- laws against the sundance
9. Tuesday 8 Discussion Groups: Religious Encounters
Michael Harkin, "Power and Progress: the Evangelic Dialogue Among the Heiltsuk, Ethnohistory, 40, 1 (Winter 1993) 1-33.
Denys Delâge and Helen Tanner, "The Ojibwa-Jesuit Debate at Walpole Island, 1844, Ethnohistory, 41,2 (Spring 1994) 295-321.
Sergei Kan, "Shamanism and Christianity: Modern Day Tlingit Elders
Look at the Past," Ethnohistory, 38, 4 (Fall 1991) 363-387.
10. Wednesday 9 Evolving roles of Aboriginal Women
- Bill C-31
Film, Keepers of the Fire
11. Tuesday 15 Discussion on Stony Creek Woman
Reading: Bridget Moran, ed. Stony Creek Woman: the Story of Mary John
Option 1: Bibliography and Essay Outline Due.
Option 2: Stony Creek Woman assignment due.
12. Wednesday 16 Displacement from the Land, onto Welfare
13. Tuesday 22 Reading Break
14. Wednesday 23 Reading Break
15. Tuesday 29 Guest Lecture: Negotiating Aboriginal Self-Government Dr. Frank Cassidy
16. Wednesday 1 Discussion: Desperately Seeking Absolution?
Robin Brownlee and Mary-Ellen Kelm, "Desperately Seeking Absolution: Native Agency as Colonialist Alibi," Canadian Historical Review, 75 (December 1994) 343-56.
Tina Loo, "Dan Cranmer's Potlatch," Canadian Historical Review.
Miller, J.R. "Owen Glendower, Hotspur, and Canadian Indian Policy."
in J.R. Miller, ed. Sweet Promises: A Reader on Indian-White Relations
in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto, 1991, 323-352.&
17. Tuesday 7 Accommodation, Assimilation, Breakdown, Resistance
- Residential Schools
- Pan-Indian Movements
- Parliamentary Hearings
18. Wednesday 8 Guest Speaker: Art Thompson, "Surviving the Residential School."
19. Tuesday 14 Renewal
Reading: Dickason, Chap 22 -
20. Wednesday 15 Film: Blockade
Option 1: Research Essay Due
21. Tuesday 21 Discussion: Towards a Just Resolution
Reading: Alfred, Peace, Power and Righteousness: pp 119-128.
Dickason, Chap. 26.
Option 2: Peace, Power and Righteousness Assignment Due.
22. Wednesday 22 Contested Terrain and Contemporary Strategies
Reading: Dickason, Chap 23, 27
b) Modern Land Claims - the Gitksan Wetsuwet'en
c) Self Government and the Constitution
23. Tuesday 28 The Nisga'a Treaty in Historical Perspective
24. Wednesday 29 Guest Speaker: Taiaiake Alfred, "An Indigenous Manifesto for the Future."
Reading: "Righteousness," from Alfred, Peace, Power
and Righteousness," 97-119.
25. Tuesday 4 Summing Up
26. Wednesday 5 Field Trip Native Heritage Centre, Cowichan.
TAKE HOME EXAMS DISTRIBUTED.
Chose one of the following questions and write 1,500-2,000 word essay
using the book Peace,
1. Governance: Select a Canadian aboriginal group and compare their traditional
2. Alfred speaks about the rediscovery of aboriginal tradition as the
key. Examine the
4. Justice: Select a Canadian aboriginal group and compare their traditional
justice system to
5. Choose an incident in Canadian Aboriginal-Non-Aboriginal relations
(ie. Oka, Charlottetown
6. Can Aboriginal communities proceed before they heal? Using Alfreds
book as a starting
1. According to Alfred what are the differences between Aboriginal and
non-Aboriginal ideas of
3. Is there a conflict between Alfreds idea of peace-making and
the need to assert aboriginal
4. How does Alfred distinguish self-government and sovereignty?
5. According to Alfred, what are the steps that need to be taken? Do you agree?
Reading (If you can, read in this order):
Michael Harkin, Power and Progress: the Evangelic Dialogue Among
the Heiltsuk, Ethnohistory,
Sergei Kan, Shamanism and Christianity: Modern Day Tlingit Elders
Look at the Past,
2. What factors contributed to the conversion of Aboriginal People to
Christianity? To what
3. To what extent were Aboriginal and Christian beliefs incompatible
and to what extent did
4. Are modern-day Aboriginal Christians dupes of a colonizing culture?