Instructor: John Lutz
Beginning with the first arrival of outsiders in the 1770s and ending in recent times, the weekly sessions will bring an international literature on race and racism to bear on the social construction of Aboriginal People, Blacks, Whites, Asians, East Indians, Jews and Hawaiians in this region. Students will have an opportunity to explore how race has been "created" on each side of the border, an exercise which will inevitably reveal the similarities and differences in this aspect of Canadian and American cultures.
Assignments and Evaluations.
The instructor takes full responsibility for all the grades assigned but will be guided in 10% of the grade by the evaluations of your classmates.
Participation 20% (10% based on evaluation by classmates, 10% by instructor)
There is no text for the course. The seminar readings are placed on Reserve in the MacPherson Library Reserve Reading Room and copies are also placed in the History Department Reading Room, Clearihue B247.
Numerical scores are converted into letter grades using the university
standard: A+ 100-90 B 70-74 D 50-54
In order to participate and contribute it is essential in this class that you do the reading and writing on time every week. If you do not, you are cheating yourself, which is up to you, but you are also cheating all the other participants.
Your participation grade will be based on two components. The instructor's evaluations which are made weekly and which you make check at any time, will constitute 10% of the final grade. In the last or next to last class you will be asked to assign a participation grade to all your classmates. The average of this grade will, except in unusual cases, determine 10% of the final grade.
Everyone is expected to prepare a research essay of approximately 3,000 words, based, at least in part, on primary sources. You will be asked to select a general research area (not a specific topic) and a date for your research presentation by September 16th. Every student will make a very brief presentation of their research (10 minutes) to the class which will be worth 10% of their grade.
You will be assigned a mentor and will also be a mentor for someone else in the class. A week prior to the class when your research presentation is due you will provide a copy of your essay to your mentor and a copy to the instructor. This paper is worth 30% of your grade. The mentor will critique your paper on a written form. S/he will also offer constructive observations on your paper orally after your presentation and raise items for discussion by the rest of the class. Your mentor will be graded on the written and oral critique, and that grade will be worth 10% of their grade. You may submit a revised research paper up to 3 weeks after your presentation. This will be re-graded and the new grade will be worth 10% of your final mark.
Delay in this course format is fatal to the progress of the course. As a result late penalties are stiff where time is of the essence. Lateness in having your essay ready is penalized at 2% of the course grade a day. For example if your paper was due on Thursday and not available until Monday you would forfeit 4% (weekends count as one day) of the 30% grade for the paper. Delayed research presentations forfeit 2% of the course grade. Time is not so much of the essence with your final paper so penalties are light, 1% of the grade of the assignment, per day.
The assignments must be original work submitted for this course only. They may draw upon other scholars' work, but there is a difference between the acknowledged use of another's ideas or research and PLAGIARISM, the unacknowledged restatement of another's ideas and material in the guise of original work. Plagiarism is a form of academic misconduct which the university penalizes with sanctions ranging from a failing grade on the assignment to suspension from the university. See the university policy on pp 19-20 of the calendar.
Each seminar has a theme and research papers presented will relate to the themes. The theme you choose will determine the date your presentation is due. Within that theme you will choose a specific topic in consultation with the instructor. This paper will connect the theoretical literature to the specific topic under consideration. Papers must have some comparative element but this element may be introductory, as a way of setting up a context for a particular study. In general though, the more comparative the better.
Take Home Exam:
There is take home final exam for the course, worth 25%. The exam will consist of the following questions:
Considering at least two "racial" groups explain why you believe
that there was, or was not, a significant difference in how race was constructed
on different sides of the border.
1. Th. Sept. 9. Introductions
Dan Gardner, "When Racial Categories Make No Sense," Globe and Mail. 1997.
S.M. Lipset, "Mosaic and Melting Pot" from North American Cultures: Values and Institutions in Canada and the United States, Borderlands, 1990, 27-29.
2. Th. Sept. 16. Children of a Common Mother - Race in Britain and America to the American Revolution
Reginald Horsman, Race and manifest destiny : the origins of American
racial anglo-saxonism (Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1981).
Edward Said, "Knowing the Oriental", from Orientalism, New York, 1978 pp. 31-49.
Smedley, Chap 8: "Late 18th Century Thought and Crystallization of the Ideology of Race" 171- 204.
Horsman, Chap 5, Providential Nation,
Abraham Kriegel, "A Converging of Ethics: Saints and Whigs in British Antislavery", Journal of British Studies, 26 (October 1987) 423-450.
Seymour Drescher, "Whose Abolition? Popular Pressure and the ending of the Slave Trade," Past and Present, 143, 1994.
4. Th. Sept. 30. Race After Darwin
Horsman, Chap 8 "The Dissemination of Scientific Racism," 139-157.
Nancy Stepan, "Race After Darwin" from The Idea of Race in Science: Great Britain, 1800-1960, London, 1982, 83-110.
Robert Berkhofer, The White Man's Indian, New York, Vintage, 49- 69.
Smedley, Chap 10 "A Different Order of Being: Nineteenth Century Science and the Ideology of Race" 231-254
Stepan, "Eugenics and Race 1900-25," 111-139.
Angus McLaren, "The creation of a haven for 'human thoroughbreds': the sterilization of the feeble-minded and the mentally ill in British Columbia," Canadian Historical Review 67, 1986 127-50.
Sarah Deutsch, "Landscape of enclaves: Race Relations in the West, 1865-1900," in W. Cronon, et al, Under an Open Sky., New York, Norton, 1992, 110-131.
John Mack Farragher, "Americans, Mexicans, Métis," in Under Open Sky, 90-109.
; Richard White, "Race Relations in the American West," American Quarterly, 38, 3, 1986, 396- 416.
. Th. Oct. 7. Interconnections with Class
Davia K. Stasiulis, "Theorizing Connections: Gender, Race, Ethnicity
and Class," in Peter s. Li and
Vic Satzwich "The Political Economy of Race and Ethnicity," in Li and Bolaria.
Peter Ward, "Class and Race in the Social Structure of British Columbia," B.C. Studies, 45, 1980, 17-35.
Rennie Warburton, "Ethnicity, Race, Class and Gender in B.C.: Taking Stock," unpublished paper, 1990.
Floya Anthias, Race and Class Revisited: Conceptualizing Race and Racisms," Sociological Review, 38, 1, 1990, 19-42.
John Lutz, "Power and Race in the Canadian West: Making Indians in British Columbia" unpublished paper, 1994.
Joseph McGeshick, Fantasies of Blood: The Blood Quantum Phenomenon, Indians and Identity," unpublished paper, 1994.
James Clifton, "Alternate Identities and Cultural Frontiers,"from Being and Becoming Indian, 1989, 1-37.
Alexandra Harmon, "Lines in the Sand, Shifting Boundaries Between Indians and Non-Indians in the Puget Sound Region," Western Historical Quarterly, 26, 4, 1995, 429-453.
6. Th. Oct. 14. Class canceled in favour of essay preparation.
7. Th. Oct. 21 Comparative Constructions of Aboriginal People
Horsman, Chap 10 "Racial Destiny and the Indians," from Race and Manifest Destiny, 189-207.
Robin Fisher, "Indian Warfare and Two Frontiers", Pacific Historical Review, 50, 1981, 1981.
Barry Gough, "The Indian Policies of Great Britain and the US", Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 2, 2, 1982, 321-337.
Keith Carlson, "The Lynching of Louis Sam," BC Studies, 109, 1996 63-82.
Th. Oct. 28. Race, Gender, and Sex
Terry Goldie, "Sexuality", from Fear and Temptation: The Image of the Indigene in Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand Literatures, Montreal, 1989, 63-84.
Elizabeth Vibert, "Real Men Hunt Buffalo, Masculinity, Race and Class in British Fur Traders Narratives," Gender and History, 8,1 1996, 4-21.
David Smits, "Squaw Men, Half Breeds and Amalgamators: Late nineteenth Century Anglo- American Attitudes toward Indian-White Race Mixing," American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 15:3, 1991, 29-61.
Sylvia Van Kirk, "The Role of Native Women," The Women's West, S. Armitage and E. Jameson, eds. (Norman: University of Oklahoma, 1988) 53-62.
John Lutz, "The Erotics of Exploration", unpublished paper, 1997.
Jean Barman, "What A Difference a Border Makes: Aboriginal Racial Intermixture in the Pacific Northwest," Journal of the West, 38, 3 (July 1999).
Th. Nov. 4. Making Blacks
Roediger, chap 5 "Class, Coons, and Crowds in Antebellum America" Wages of Whiteness, 95- 114.
Smedley Chap 5, "The Arrival of Africans and their Decline into
Slavery," Race in North America,
Shepard, Plain Racism, in Racism in Cda.
P.S. Foner, The Colored Inhabitants of Vancouver Island," BC Studies, 8, 1970-71, 29-33.
Elizabeth Mclagan, "To Keep Clear of this Most Troublesome Class, Exclusion Laws, 1844-1857," from A Peculiar paradise: a history of Blacks in Oregon, Portland, 1980, 23-32.
Mclagan, "Within Every Rule," 49-60.
Mclagan, "A Very Prejudiced State," 129-156.
Th Nov. 11. Reading Break
Roger Daniels, "The Japanese Experience in North America: An Essay in Comparative Racism," Canadian Ethnic Studies, 9, 1977.
È. Kiyoshi Kawakami, "White Canada," Canadian Magazine, 42, 1913-14.
Eve Ma, "A Chinese Statesman in Canada, 1903," B.C. Studies, 59, 1983, 28-43.
John McLaren, "The Early B.C. Judges, the Rule of Law and the Chinese Question': The California and Oregon Connection," in Law for the Elephant, Law for the Beaver, John McLaren, Hamar Foster and Chet Orloff, eds. (Regina: Canadian Plains Research Society, 1992) pp. 237-273.
Bruce Ryder, "Racism and the Constitution: The Constitutional Fate of British Columbia Anti- Asian immigration Legislation, 1884-1909," Osgoode Hall Law Review, 29, 1991, 619-676.
Kay Anderson, "The Idea of Chinatown," from Ian Mckay, ed. The Challenge of Modernity, Toronto, 1992, 156-186.
Benson Tong, "Chinese Prostitutes in the West" , UnSubmissive Women, Norman, 1994, 3-33.
Gillian Creese, Organizing Against Racism,
13. Th. Nov. 25 The Race with No Colour
Ruth Frankenberg, "Introduction: Local Whitenesses, Localizing Whiteness,""
from Displacing Whiteness, (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997) 1-20.
Haney Lopez, "White Race Consciousness," White By Law, New York, 1996, 155-196.
Violence in Boundary Patrolling
Stanley Barrett , The Ku Klux Klan from Is God a Racist, The Right Wing in Canada, 120-141.
J. McAlpine, "Report Arising Out of the Activities of the Ku Klux Klan in British Columbia," presented to the Hon. Minister of Labour for B.C., 1981, selected pages.
Eckard V. Toy, "The Klu Klux Clan in Oregon,"in G. Thomas Edwards and Carlos Schwantes, ed. Experiences in a promised Land, (Seattle: University of Washington, 1986) 269--286.
13. Th. Dec. 2. More Recent Racisms/Wrap-up