Selected Bibliography: Hardy and Gender

Detail from Walter Paget’s illustrations for “The Pursuit of the Well-Beloved,” Illustrated London News, 3 December 1892, page 709.

Hardy’s work is deeply preoccupied with gender issues, and his exploratory approach to the gender roles and stereotypes of his time makes his work a rich source of speculation for Hardy scholars. Commentaries on gender in his work follow an historical-social progression. Early feminist critiques of the 1970s and 80s, for example, tended to be preoccupied with his gallery of strong women characters—Bathsheba, Eustacia, Arabella, Sue—and with “placing” him politically: was his work feminist? Sexist? Anti-sexist but not quite feminist? This critical perplexity proved to be (not surprisingly) incapable of resolution, apart from a general agreement that his work could be classified, at various times, as all three—appropriately enough, since Hardy’s oeuvre encompasses a more complex contemplation of gender issues than such labels can adequately account for.

The postmodern emphasis of the 1990s also proved to be congenial to Hardy studies, largely because of his multi-faceted Detail from Robert Barnes’s illustrations for “The Mayor of Casterbridge,” The Graphic, 30 January 1886, Plate 5 approach to gender politics. The postmodern questioning of a binary gender system and its accompanying gender roles found an appropriate subject in Hardy, whose creation of powerful women, sensitive men, and convoluted sexual relationships challenged conventional notions of femininity, masculinity, and sexuality. His narrators, too, reflect a postmodern gender indeterminacy, a kind of “gender blurring” that radically contravenes the normative expectations of a binary gender system. To quote Kristin Brady, “Hardy’s fiction simultaneously depicts and elicits sexual responses that are transgressive, not only for their failure to conform with standard rules governing courtship and marriage, but also for their failure to subscribe exclusively to the dictates of compulsory heterosexuality. . . . [His texts bear a] complex relationship . . . to a whole range of cultural discourses that continue to shape our own constructions of sexual difference” ("Thomas Hardy and Matters of Gender," The Cambridge Companion to Thomas Hardy, ed. Dale Kramer, Cambridge UP 1999, 107-108).

A fuller account of the trajectory of gender criticism of Hardy’s work can be found in “Hardy and Gender,” ed. Rosemarie Morgan, The Ashgate Research Companion to Thomas Hardy (Ashgate, 2010), pp. 301-314.


Alexander, Anne. “Man and Woman.” Thomas Hardy: The ‘Dream-Country’ of His Fiction. London: Vision, 1987.

Almonte, Paul. “‘When my life drops ‘twill be hers’: Fearing the Femme Fatale in Thomas Hardy’s The Woodlanders.” The Hardy Society Journal 25 (2009): 71-86.

Andres, Sophia. “Beyond Gender Boundaries: Edward Burne-Jones and Thomas Hardy.” The Pre-Raphaelite Art of the Victorian Novel: Narrative Challenges to Visual Gendered Boundaries. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2005.

Archimedes, Sondra M. “‘Shapes Like Our Own Selves Hideously Multiplied’: Sue Bridehead, Reproduction, and the Disease of ‘Modern Civilization.’” Gendered Pathologies: The Female Body and Biomedical Discourse in the Nineteenth-Century English Novel. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Asquith, Mark. “The Plucked Harp String.” Thomas Hardy, Metaphysics and Music. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

Assmann, Winnifred. “‘I Hate to be Thought Men’s Property’: Rehabilitating Bathsheba Everdene.” Thomas Hardy Yearbook 20 (1992): 49-58.

Bayley, John. “The Love Story in Two on a Tower.” Thomas Hardy Annual. Ed. Norman Page. No. 1 (1983): 60-70.

Beegel, Susan. “Bathesheba’s Lovers: Male Sexuality in Far from the Madding Crowd.” Sexuality and Victorian Literature. Ed. Don Richard Cox. Spec. issue of Tennessee Studies in Literature 27. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1984.

Bernstein, Susan David. “The Un-Intact State: Tess of the d’Urbervilles and Confessions of Sexual and Textual Violence.” Confessional Subjects: Revelations of Gender and Power in Victorian Literature and Culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997. Rpt. of “Confessing and Editing: The Politics of Purity in Hardy’s Tess.” Virginal Sexuality and Textuality in Victorian Literature. Ed. Lloyd Davis. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993.

Blain, Virginia. “Thomas Hardy and Charlotte Mew: Queering the Ballad/Issues of Poetic Identity.” Australasian Victorian Studies Journal 9 (2003): 16-27.

Blake, Kathleen. “Pure Tess: Hardy on Knowing a Woman.” Studies in English Literature 22.4 (1982): 689-705. Rpt. in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the d’Urbervilles. Ed. Harold Bloom. Modern Critical Interpretations. New York: Chelsea House, 1987. Rpt. in Critical Essays on Thomas Hardy: The Novels. Ed. Dale Kramer. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1990.

---. “Sue Bridehead, ‘The Woman of the Feminist Movement.’” Studies in English Literature 18.4 (1978): 703-726. Rpt. in Thomas Hardy’s Jude the Obscure. Ed. Harold Bloom. Modern Critical Interpretations. New York: Chelsea House, 1987.

Boumelha, Penny. “‘A Complicated Position for a Woman’: The Hand of Ethelberta.” The Sense of Sex: Feminist Perspectives on Hardy. Ed. Margaret R. Higonnet. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

---, ed. Jude the Obscure. New Casebooks. New York: St. Martin’s, 2000.

---. “Jude the Obscure: Sexual Ideology and Narrative Form.” Jude the Obscure. New Casebooks. New York: St. Martin’s, 2000. Excerpted from Thomas Hardy and Women: Sexual Ideology and Narrative Form. Brighton: Harvester, 1982.

---. “The Patriarchy of Class: Under the Greenwood Tree, Far from the Madding Crowd, The Woodlanders.” The Cambridge Companion to Thomas Hardy. Ed. Dale Kramer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

---. “Tess of the d’Urbervilles: Sexual Ideology and Narrative Form.” Tess of the d’Urbervilles. Ed. Peter Widdowson. New Casebooks. New York: St. Martin’s, 1993. Excerpted from Thomas Hardy and Women: Sexual Ideology and Narrative Form. Brighton: Harvester, 1982.

---. Thomas Hardy and Women: Sexual Ideology and Narrative Form. Brighton: Harvester, 1982.

Brady, Kristin. “Tess and Alec: Rape or Seduction?” Thomas Hardy Annual. Ed. Norman Page. No. 4 (1986): 127-147.

---. “Textual Hysteria: Hardy’s Narrator on Women.” The Sense of Sex: Feminist Perspectives on Hardy. Ed. Margaret R. Higonnet. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

---. “Thomas Hardy and Matters of Gender.” The Cambridge Companion to Thomas Hardy. Ed. Dale Kramer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Bronfen, Elisabeth. “Pay As You Go: Exchanges of Bodies and Signs.” The Sense of Sex: Feminist Perspectives on Hardy. Ed. Margaret R. Higonnet. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

Bulaila, Abdul Aziz M. “‘The Clay But Not the Potter’: Love and Marriage in The Well-Beloved.” Thomas Hardy Journal 9.2 (1993): 61-71.

---. “Desperate Remedies: Not Just a Minor Novel.” Thomas Hardy Journal. 14.1 (1998): 65-74.

Burns, Wayne. The Flesh and the Spirit in Seven Hardy Novels. Alpine, California: Blue Daylight Books, 2002.

Butler, Lance St John. “Critical Approaches: Feminism, Gender, and Sexuality.” Oxford Reader’s Companion to Hardy. Ed. Norman Page. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Caminero-Santangelo, Byron. “A Moral Dilemma: Ethics in Tess of the D'Urbervilles.” English Studies 75.1: 46-61.

Campbell, Elizabeth. “Tess of the d’Urbervilles: Misfortune Is a Woman.” Victorian Newsletter 76 (1989): 1-5.

Carroll, Alicia. “Human Milk in the Modern World: Breastfeeding and the Cult of the Dairy in Adam Bede and Tess of the D’Urbervilles.” Women’s Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 31.2 (2002): 165-197.

Casagrande, Peter J. “A New View of Bathsheba Everdene.” Critical Approaches to the Fiction of Thomas Hardy. Ed. Dale Kramer. London: Macmillan, 1979.

Childers, Mary. “Thomas Hardy, The Man Who ‘Liked’ Women.” Criticism 23.4 (1981): 317-334.

Claridge, Laura. “Tess: A Less than Pure Woman Ambivalently Presented.” Texas Studies in Literature and Language 28.3 (1986): 324-338. Rpt. in Tess of the d’Urbervilles. Ed. Peter Widdowson. New Casebooks. New York: St. Martin’s, 1993.

Claybaugh, Amanda. “Thomas Hardy: New Women, Old Purposes.” The Novel of Purpose: Literature and Social Reform in the Anglo-American World. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007.

Cockshut, A. O. J. “The Pessimists: Thomas Hardy.” Man and Woman: A Study of Love in the Novel 1740-1940. London: Collins, 1977.

Cornwell, Neil. “‘A Dorset Yokel’s Knuckles’: Thomas Hardy and Lolita.” Nabokovian 54 (2005): 54-64.

Cronin, Meoghan Byrne. “‘As a Diamond Kills an Opal’: Charm and Countercharm in Thomas Hardy’s A Pair of Blue Eyes. Victorians Institute Journal 26 (1998): 121-147.

Cunningham, Gail. "Thomas Hardy: New Women for Old." The New Woman and the Victorian Novel. London: Macmillan, 1978.

Cunningham, Valentine. “Tess.” The Novel, Volume 2: Forms and Themes. Ed. Franco Moretti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006.

Curtis, Simon. “Hardy, George Moore and the ‘Doll’ of English Fiction.” Celebrating Thomas Hardy: Insights and Appreciations. Ed. Charles P. C. Pettit. Houndmills: Macmillan, 1996.

Daleski, H. M. “Figures in the Carpet.” Victorian Literature and Culture 19 (1991): 257-275.

---. “Hardy’s Reluctant Heroines.” Unities: Studies in the English Novel. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1985.

---. “Tess of the d’Urbervilles: Mastery and Abandon.” Essays in Criticism 30.4 (1980): 326-345. Rpt. in The Divided Heroine: A Recurrent Pattern in Six English Novels. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1984.

---. Thomas Hardy and Paradoxes of Love. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1997.

Dalziel, Pamela. “Hardy’s Unforgotten ‘Indiscretion’: The Centrality of an Uncollected Work.” Review of English Studies 43.171 (1992): 347-366.

---. “Hardy’s Sexual Evasions: The Evidence of the ‘Studies, Specimens &c.’ Notebook.” Victorian Poetry 31.2 (1993): 143-155.

---. “‘She matched his violence with her own wild passion’: Illustrating Far from the Madding Crowd.” Reading Thomas Hardy. Ed. Charles P. C. Pettit. Houndmills: Palgrave, 1998.

---. “Whatever Happened to Elizabeth Jane? Revisioning Gender in The Mayor of Casterbridge.” Thomas Hardy: Texts and Contexts. Ed. Phillip Mallett. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.

Davies, Sara., “The Hand of Ethelberta: De-Mythologising ‘Woman.’” Critical Survey 5.2 (1993): 123-130.

Davis, W. Eugene. “Tess of the d'Urbervilles: Some Ambiguities about a Pure Woman.” Nineteenth-Century Fiction 22.4 (1968): 397-401.

Davis, William A. “Reading Failure in(to) Jude the Obscure: Hardy’s Sue Bridehead and Lady Jeune’s ‘New Woman’ Essays, 1885-1900.” Victorian Literature and Culture 26.1 (1998): 53-70.

---. Thomas Hardy and the Law: Legal Presences in Hardy's Life and Fiction. Newark DE: University of Delaware Press, 2003.

DeAngelis, Rose. “Triangulated Passions: Love, Self-Love, and the Other in Thomas Hardy’s The Well-Beloved.” Studies in the Novel 34.4 (2002): 403-421.

Dellamora, Richard. “Male Relations in Thomas Hardy’s Jude the Obscure.” Papers on Language and Literature 27.4 (1991): 453-472. Rpt. in Jude the Obscure. Ed. Penny Boumelha. New Casebooks. New York: St. Martin’s, 2000.

Deresiewicz, William. “Thomas Hardy and the History of Friendship Between the Sexes.” Wordsworth Circle 38.1 (2007): 56-63.

Devereux, Joanna. Patriarchy and Its Discontents: Sexual Politics in Selected Novels and Stories of Thomas Hardy. Studies in Major Literary Authors: Outstanding Dissertations. New York: Routledge, 2003.

---. “Thomas Hardy’s A Pair of Blue Eyes: The Heroine as Text.” Victorian Newsletter 81 (1992): 20-22.

d'Exideuil, Pierre. The Human Pair in the Work of Thomas Hardy: An Essay on the Sexual Problem as Treated in the Wessex Novels, Tales, and Poems. Trans. Felix W. Crosse. London: Humphrey Toulmin, 1930.

DiBattista, Maria A. “Jude the Obscure and the Taboo of Virginity.” Jude the Obscure. Ed. Penny Boumelha. New Casebooks. New York: St. Martin’s, 2000. Rpt. of “Erotoleptic Narrative: Hardy’s Jude the Obscure.” First Love: The Affections of Modern Fiction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Dolin, Tim. “Jude Fawley and the New Man.” Jude the Obscure. Ed. Penny Boumelha. New Casebooks. New York: St. Martin’s, 2000.

Draper, R. P. “The Feminine Voice in the Poetry of Thomas Hardy.” Thomas Hardy Journal 8.1 (1992): 71-83.

Dutta, Shanta. Ambivalence in Hardy: A Study of His Attitude to Women. Houndmills: Palgrave, 2000.

---. “Hardy and his Mayor: A Gendering of Critical Response.” Thomas Hardy Journal 19.2 (2003): 33-40.

---. “Sue’s ‘Obscure’ Sisters.” Thomas Hardy Journal 12.2 (1996): 60-71.

---. “Thomas Hardy and the Deceased Wife’s Sister Marriage Bill.” Thomas Hardy Journal 11.2 (1995): 61-63.

Ebbatson, Roger. “The Authorial Double: Hardy and Florence Henniker.” English 48 (1999): 75-90. Rpt. in An Imaginary England: Nation, Landscape And Literature, 1840-1920. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005.

---. Hardy: The Margin of the Unexpressed. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993.

Eggenschwiler, David. “Eustacia Vye, Queen of Night and Courtly Pretender.” Nineteenth-Century Fiction 25.4 (1971): 444-454.

Elbarbary, Samir. “The Male Bias of Language and Gender Hierarchy: Hardy’s Bathsheba Everdene and his Vision of Feminine Reality Reconsidered.” Cahiers Victoriens et Edouardiens 41 (1995): 59-79.

Elian, Abbas Abdelrahman. “Hardy’s The Well Beloved and the Victorian Concept of Gender Identity.” The Thomas Hardy Yearbook 20 (1993): 24-58.

Elvy, Margaret. Sexing Hardy: Thomas Hardy and Feminism. 1998. Maidstone: Crescent Moon, 2007.

Emmett, V. J., Jr. “Marriage in Hardy’s Later Novels.” Midwest Quarterly 10.4 (1969): 331-348.

Epstein, Leonora. “Sale and Sacrament: The Wife Auction in The Mayor of Casterbridge.” English Language Notes 24.4 (1987): 50-56.

Ermarth, Elizabeth. “Fictional Consensus and Female Casualties.” The Representation of Women in Fiction. Ed. Carolyn G. Heilbrun and Margaret R. Higonnet. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1983.

Evans, Robert. “The Other Eustacia.” Novel: A Forum on Fiction, 1:3 (1968): 251-259.

Farrelly, Carol, “Hardy, Candour and the ‘Doll of English Fiction.’” Thomas Hardy Journal 18 (2002): 73-83.

Federico, Annette. Masculine Identity in Hardy and Gissing. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1991.

Fernando, Lloyd. “Hardy: ‘The Fiction of Sex and the New Woman.’” “New Women” in the Late Victorian Novel. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1977.

Fincham, Tony. “Tessexuality – A Victim Culture.” Thomas Hardy Journal 23 (2007): 126-141.

Fisher, Joe. The Hidden Hardy. New York: St. Martin’s, 1992.

Fjågesund, Peter. “Thomas Hardy’s Two on a Tower: The Failure of a Symbol.” Thomas Hardy Journal 14.1 (1998): 85-93.

Freeman, Janet. “Ways of Looking at Tess.” Studies in Philology 79.3 (1982): 311-323.

Garlock, David. “Entangled Genders: Plasticity, Indeterminacy, and Constructs of Sexuality in Darwin and Hardy,” Dickens Studies Annual 27 (1998): 287-305.

Garson, Marjorie. “Jude the Obscure: What Does a Man Want?” Hardy”s Fables of Integrity: Woman, Body, Text. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. Rpt. in Jude the Obscure. Ed. Penny Boumelha. New Casebooks. New York: St. Martin’s, 2000.

Gatrell, Simon. “Creating Tess, 1892.” Tess of the d’Urbervilles. Ed. Peter Widdowson. New Casebooks. New York: St. Martin’s, 1993. Excerpted from Hardy the Creator: A Textual Biography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

---. “Dress, Body and Psyche in ‘The Romantic Adventures of a Milkmaid’: Tess of the d’Urbervilles and The Mayor of Casterbridge.” Thomas Hardy Journal 22 (2006): 143-158.

---. “The Erotics of Dress in A Pair of Blue Eyes.” Thomas Hardy Reappraised: Essays in Honour of Michael Millgate. Ed. Keith Wilson. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006.

---. “Sex, Marriage and the Decline of Traditional Community in Jude the Obscure.” Thomas Hardy and the Proper Study of Mankind. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993.

Glendening, John. “The Entangled Heroine of Hardy’s Tess of the d’Urbervilles.” The Evolutionary Imagination in Late-Victorian Novels: An Entangled Bank. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007.

Goetz, William R. “The Felicity and Infelicity of Marriage in Jude the Obscure.” Nineteenth-Century Fiction 38.2 (1983): 189-213.

Goode, John. “The Offensive Truth: Tess of the d’Urbervilles.” Thomas Hardy: The Offensive Truth. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988. Rpt. in Tess of the d’Urbervilles. Ed. Peter Widdowson. New Casebooks. New York: St. Martin’s, 1993.

---. “Sue Bridehead and the New Woman.” Women Writing and Writing about Women. Ed. Mary Jacobus. London: Croom Helm, 1979.

Gossin, Pamela. Thomas Hardy’s Novel Universe: Astronomy, Cosmology, and Gender in the Post-Darwinian World. The Nineteenth Century Series. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007.

Green, Laura. “‘Strange [In]difference of Sex’: Thomas Hardy, the Victorian Man of Letters, and The Temptations of Androgyny.” Victorian Studies 38.4 (1995): 523-549. Rpt. in Educating Women: Cultural Conflict and Victorian Literature. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2001.

Gribble, Jennifer. “The Quiet Women of Egdon Heath.” Essays in Criticism 46.3 (1996): 234-257.

Grossman, Julie. “Hardy’s Tess and ‘The Photograph’: Images to Die For.” Criticism 35.4 (1993): 609-630.

---. “Thomas Hardy and the Role of Observer.” ELH 56.3 (1989): 619-638.

Guerard, Albert J. “Of Men and Women.” Thomas Hardy. 1949. Norfolk, CT: New Directions, 1964.

---. “The Women of the Novels.” Hardy: A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. Albert J. Guerard. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1963.

Gussow, Adam. “Dreaming Holmberry-Lipped Tess: Aboriginal Reverie and Spectatorial Desire in Tess of the d'Ubervilles.” Studies in the Novel 32.4 (2000): 442-463.

Harding, James M. “The Signification of Arabella’s Missile: Feminine Sexuality, Masculine Anxiety and Revision in Jude the Obscure.” Journal of Narrative Technique 26.1 (1996): 85-111.

Hardy, Barbara. “Sexual Imagination: the Monologues.” Thomas Hardy: Imagining Imagination in Hardy’s Poetry and Fiction. London: Athlone Press, 2000.

Harvey, Geoffrey. “Feminist and Gender Studies.” The Complete Critical Guide to Thomas Hardy (London: Routledge, 2003).

---. Thomas Hardy: Tess of the d’Urbervilles. Icon Readers’ Guides. Cambridge: Icon Books, 2000.

Hazen, James. “The Tragedy of Tess Durbeyfield.” Texas Studies in Literature and Language 11.1 (1969): 779-795.

Heath, Kay. "In the Eye of the Beholder: Victorian Age Construction and the Specular Self." Victorian Literature and Culture 34.1 (2006): 27-45.

Heffernan, James A. W. “‘Cruel Persuasion’: Seduction, Temptation and Agency in Hardy’s Tess.” Thomas Hardy Yearbook 35 (2005): 5-18.

Heilman, Robert B. “Hardy’s Sue Bridehead.” Nineteenth-Century Fiction 20.4 (1966): 307-323.

Hennelly, Mark M., Jr. “Courtly Wild Men and Carnivalesque Pig Women in Dickens and Hardy.” Dickens Studies Annual 26 (1998): 1-32.

Herbert, Michael. “Hardy and Lawrence – and their Mothers.” Thomas Hardy Journal 22 (2006): 116-128.

Higonnet, Margaret R. “Hardy and his Critics: Gender in the Interstices.” A Companion to Thomas Hardy. Ed. Keith Wilson. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

---, ed. The Sense of Sex: Feminist Perspectives on Hardy. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

---. “A Woman’s Story: Tess and the Problem of Voice.” The Sense of Sex: Feminist Perspectives on Hardy. Ed. Margaret R. Higonnet. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993. Rpt. of “Fictions of Feminine Voice: Antiphony and Silence in Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles.” Out of Bounds: Male Writers and Gender(ed) Criticism. Ed. Laura Claridge and Elizabeth Langland. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1990.

Horlacher, Stefan. “‘The Letter Killeth but the Spirit Giveth Life’: Masculinity in Thomas Hardy’s Jude the Obscure.” Anglistentag 2004 Aachen Proceedings. Ed. Lilo Moessner and Christa M. Schmidt. Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2005.

Howe, Irving. “Let the Day Perish.” Thomas Hardy. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1966.

Hughes, John. “Those Unaccountable Sensations.” Ecstatic Sound: Music and Individuality in the Work of Thomas Hardy. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001.

Humm, Maggie. “Gender and Narrative in Thomas Hardy.” The Thomas Hardy Yearbook. Ed. G. Stephens Cox. No. 11 (1984): 41-48.

---. “Thomas Hardy and Women: A Psycho-social Criticism of Tess d’Urberville and Sue Bridehead.” Massachusetts Studies in English 6.1, 6.2 (1979): 77-89.

Humma, John B. “Language and Disguise: The Imagery of Nature and Sex in Tess.” South Atlantic Review 54.4 (1989): 63-83.

Ifkovic, David A. “Tess as an Innocent.” Thomas Hardy Journal 18.3 (2002): 112-114.

Ingham, Patricia. “Fallen Woman as Sign, and Narrative Syntax in Tess of the d’Urbervilles.” Tess of the D’Urbervilles. Ed. Peter Widdowson. New Casebooks. New York: St. Martin’s, 1993. Excerpted from Thomas Hardy. Feminist Readings. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1989.

---. “Jude the Obscure.” The Language of Gender and Class: Transformation in the Victorian Novel. London: Routledge, 1996.

---. “Maiden No More: Negative Values in Tess of the D’Urbervilles.” Invisible Writing and the Victorian Novel: Readings in Language and Ideology. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000.

---. “Provisional Narratives: Hardy’s Final Trilogy.” Alternative Hardy. Ed. Lance St. John Butler. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1989.

---. “Social Issues: Women and Society.” Thomas Hardy. Authors in Context. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

---. Thomas Hardy. Feminist Readings. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1989.

Irwin, Michael. “From Fascination to Listlessness: Hardy’s Depiction of Love.” Reading Thomas Hardy. Ed. Charles P. C. Pettit. Houndmills: Palgrave, 1998.

Jacobus, Mary. “Sue the Obscure.” Essays in Criticism 25 (1975): 304-328.

---. “Tess: The Making of a Pure Woman.” Tearing the Veil: Essays on Femininity. Ed. Susan Lipshitz. London: Routledge, 1978. Rpt. of “Tess’s Purity.” Essays in Criticism 26 (1976): 318-338. Rpt. in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D”Urbervilles. Ed. Harold Bloom. Modern Critical Interpretations. New York: Chelsea House, 1987.

Jekel, Pamela L. Thomas Hardy's Heroines: A Chorus of Priorities. New York: Whitston, 1986.

Jones, Tod E. “Michael Henchard: Hardy’s Male Homosexual.” Victorian Newsletter 86 (1994): 9-13.

Kaye, Richard A. “George Eliot and Thomas Hardy: Flirtation, Female Choice, and the Revision of Darwinian Belief.” The Flirt’s Tragedy: Desire without End in Victorian and Edwardian Fiction. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2002.

Kiely, Robert. “The Menace of Solitude: The Politics and Aesthetics of Exclusion in The Woodlanders.” The Sense of Sex: Feminist Perspectives on Hardy. Ed. Margaret R. Higonnet. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

Kincaid, James R. “Girl-Watching, Child-Beating and Other Exercises for Readers of Jude the Obscure.” The Sense of Sex: Feminist Perspectives on Hardy. Ed. Margaret R. Higonnet. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

---. “‘You Did Not Come’: Absence, Death and Eroticism in Tess.” Sex and Death in Victorian Literature. Ed. Regina Barreca. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

Knauer, Elizabeth L. “Unconscious Sue? Selfishness and Manipulation in Jude the Obscure.” The Hardy Review 11.1(2009): 41-51.

Knoepflmacher, U. C. “Hardy Ruins: Female Spaces and Male Designs.” PMLA 105 (1990): 1055-1070. Rpt. in The Sense of Sex: Feminist Perspectives on Hardy. Ed. Margaret R. Higonnet. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

Kramer, Dale. “Chastity in Nineteenth-Century Life and Writing.” Thomas Hardy: Tess of the d’Urbervilles. Landmarks of World Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Krasner, James. “‘One of a long row only’: Sexual Selection and the Male Gaze in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles. The Art of Evolution: Darwin, Darwinisms, and Visual Culture. Ed. Barbara Larson and Fae Brauer. Lebanon, NH: Dartmouth College Press, 2009.

Kucich, John. “Moral Authority in the Late Novels: The Gendering of Art.” The Sense of Sex: Feminist Perspectives on Hardy. Ed. Margaret R. Higonnet. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

Langbaum, Robert. “Hardy and Lawrence.” Thomas Hardy in Our Time. Houndmills: Macmillan, 1995. Rpt. of “Lawrence and Hardy.” Thomas Hardy Annual. Ed. Norman Page. No. 3 (1985). Rpt. in D. H. Lawrence and Tradition. Ed. Jeffrey Meyers. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1985.

---. “The Minimisation of Sexuality.” Thomas Hardy in Our Time. Houndmills: Macmillan, 1995. Rpt. of “The Minimisation of Sexuality in The Mayor of Casterbridge.” Thomas Hardy Journal 8.1 (1992): 20-32. Rpt. in The Mayor of Casterbridge. Ed. Julian Wolfreys. New Casebooks. New York: St. Martin’s, 2000.

---. “Sexuality.” Oxford Reader’s Companion to Hardy. Ed. Norman Page. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Langland, Elizabeth. “Becoming a Man in Thomas Hardy’s Jude the Obscure.” Telling Tales: Gender and Narrative Form in Victorian Literature and Culture. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2002. Rpt. of “Becoming a Man in Jude the Obscure.” The Sense of Sex: Feminist Perspectives on Hardy. Ed. Margaret R. Higonnet. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

---. “A Perspective of One’s Own: Thomas Hardy and the Elusive Sue Bridehead.” Studies in the Novel 12 (1980): 12-28.

Larson, Dixie Lee. “Eustacia Vye's Drowning: Defiance versus Convention.” Thomas Hardy Journal 9.3 (1993): 55-63.

Larson, Jil. “Emotion, Gender, and Ethics in Fiction by Thomas Hardy and the New Woman Writers.” Ethics and Narrative in the English Novel, 1880-1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Rpt. of “Sexual Ethics in Fiction by Thomas Hardy and the New Woman Writers.” Rereading Victorian Fiction. Ed. Alice Jenkins and Juliet Johns. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2000.

Law, Jules. “A Passing Corporeal Blight: Political Bodies in Tess of the d’Urbervilles.” Victorian Studies 40.2 (1997): 245-270.

---. “Sleeping Figures: Hardy, History, and the Gendered Body.” ELH 65.1 (1998): 223-257.

Lawrence, D. H. “Study of Thomas Hardy.” Phoenix: The Posthumous Papers of D. H. Lawrence. Ed. Edward D. McDonald. London: Heinemann, 1936.

Lecercle, Jean Jacques. “The Violence of Style in Tess of the d’Urbervilles.” Alternative Hardy. Ed. Lance St. John Butler. Houndmills: Macmillan, 1989. Rpt. in Tess of the D’Urbervilles. Ed. Peter Widdowson. New Casebooks. New York: St. Martin’s, 1993.

Ledger, Sally. “Finding an Aesthetic for the New Woman: Sue Bridehead and Jude the Obscure.” The New Woman: Fiction and Feminism at the Fin de Siècle. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997.

Lovesey, Oliver. “Reconstructing Tess.” Studies in English Literature 43.4 (2003): 913-938.

Lucas, John. “Hardy’s Women.” The Literature of Change: Studies in the Nineteenth-Century Provincial Novel. Brighton: Harvester, 1980.

Malane, Rachel. “The Tragedy of Gendered Mental Realms in Thomas Hardy’s Novels.” Sex in Mind: The Gendered Brain in Nineteenth-Century Literature and Mental Sciences. New York: Peter Lang, 2005.

Mallett, Phillip. “Hardy and Masculinity.” The Ashgate Research Companion to Thomas Hardy. Ed. Rosemarie Morgan. Surrey: Ashgate, 2010.

---. “‘The Immortal Puzzle’: Hardy and Sexuality.” Palgrave Advances in Thomas Hardy Studies. Ed. Phillip Mallett. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

---. “Sexual Ideology and Narrative Form in Jude the Obscure.” English 38 (1989): 211-224.

---. “‘Smacked, and Brought to Her Senses’: Hardy and the Clitheroe Abduction Case.” Thomas Hardy Journal 8.2 (1992): 70-73.

Malton, Sara. “‘The Woman Shall Bear Her Iniquity’: Death as Social Discipline in Thomas Hardy’s The Return of the Native.” Studies in the Novel 32.2 (2000): 147-164.

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Detail from John collier’s illustrations for “The Trumpet-Major,” Good Words, September 1880, page 585