Table 1: Preparation methods of lichens used as food by people
People Lichen Species Preparation
Thompson, Okanagan, Lillooet, Secwepemc, Coeur D'Al�ne, and Kootenay of British Columbia; Flathead Montana Bryoria fremontii Harvested, rinsed in fresh water for several hours to overnight, sometimes worked with hands, steam cooked in a covered pit with plant material (often onion) for several days, dried, then stored.
Okanagan Bryoria fremontii Usually cooked as above, but sometimes roasted over fire until crumbly then boiled in water to form molasses
Secwepemc Bryoria fremontii Usually cooked as above, but sometimes eaten raw in times of famine
Nez Perce and Blackfoot of Montana; Klamath of Oregon; and Wailaki of California Bryoria fremontii Eaten as famine food, process not recorded
Yuqpik Nephroma arcticum Collected and stored until winter, then boiled with crushed fish eggs and eaten.
Yuqpik Cetraria ericetorum, Flavocetraria cucullata Chopped and boiled in soup
Yup'ik Inuit Lobaria scrobiculata Eaten raw right off tree
Ojibwa Lobaria amplissima, unidentified lichen on white pine Boiled until looked like scrambled eggs, then eaten; or Dried, boiled, then used in broth
Ojibwa Cladina rangiferina, Not recorded
Iroquois Lobaria amplissima Cooked and made into porridge
Iroquois Lichens on rocks or trees Washed in ashes and water, then boiled in grease
Potawatomi of Wisconsin Hypogymnia physodes Boiled in soup
Menomini Lobaria amplissima, Sticta glomulerifera Gathered in any season, stored dry, then boiled in soups
Algonkin, Naskapi, Chipewyan, Cree, Inuit, and European travelers in boreal North America Umbilicaria spp. and Lasallia spp. Not always recorded, often boiled in several changes of water and eaten in soup or alone
Huron Umbilicaria spp. and Lasallia spp. Boiled then eaten
Nihitahawak of Saskatchewan Umbilicaria muehlenbergii Added to fish broth to make a thick soup
Japan Umbilicaria esculenta Eaten in soups and salads
Scandinavia, Iceland, Northern Europe and Britain, Northern Russia Cetraria islandica Lower parts removed, soaked in ash water or lye water for several days, boiled, rinsed, dried, ground, mixed with flour, then cooked as bread, gruel, or jelly.
Turkey, Egypt Evernia prunastri, Pseudevernia furfuracea Made into bread or jelly, or fermented
Lepchas and Nepalis: India Everniastrum cirrhata Boiled, liquid removed, then fried and eaten as a vegetable
West Central Asia and North Africa
Aspicilia esculenta Ground, mixed with meal to one-third its weight, then made into bread.  Or has been fermented with honey
Western Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman Parmotrema tinctorum Used as food spice
India Parmelia abessinica Used as curry powder
India Parmotrema chinense, Parmotrema perforatum Not recorded
Himalayas Peltigera canina Not recorded
Siberia Lobaria pulmonaria Used as hops for making beer
Northern Europe and Northern Russia Anaptychia ciliaris, Bryoria spp., Cetraria islandica, Cladina rangiferina, Ramalina farinacea, Ramalina fastigiata, Ramalina fraxinea, and Usnea florida Made brandy: steamed lichen under pressure for several hours, added weak acid, steamed again, neutralized with alkali, then fermented
Northern Russia Alectoria ochroleuca, Cetraria islandica, and Cladina spp. Made molasses: soaked in weak alkali, hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid, neutralized with chalk, then purified with activated carbon