Table 2:  A summary of studies on the nutritional composition of lichens          
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Lichen species Ash
%
Fat
%
Ether
Extract-
ives
%
Protein
g/100g
Crude
Fiber
%
Carbo-
hydrates
%
Type of Carbohydrate Vit. C
mg/
100g
Vit. B
g/100g or
mg/
100g
Vit. A Vit. D Ca
mg/
100g
P
mg/
100g
Fe
mg/
100g
Other Reference
Parmelia
 cirrhata
12.3   2.6 8.2a 11.0 22.5i Lichenin and/or
Isolichenin
4.4 210k     398 156 52   Lal and
Ranganatha
Rao 1956
Parmelia
 quercina
2.4   4.5 12.8a 10.7 25.0i Lichenin and/or
Isolichenin
2.7 530k     1250 195 272   Lal and
Ranganatha
Rao 1956
Parmelia
 tinctorum
12.6   6.0 13.8a 13.4 25.0i Lichenin and/or
Isolichenin
5.0 100k     1728 118 36   Lal and
Ranganatha
Rao 1956
Usnea
 orientalis
8.9   1.6 5.1a 6.1 50.0i Lichenin and/or
Isolichenin
9.4 80k     902 110 314   Lal and
Ranganatha
Rao 1956
Usnea
 longissima
3.5   2.2 5.4a 3.8 46.3i Lichenin and/or
Isolichenin
3.4 310k     1028 80 90   Lal and
Ranganatha
Rao 1956
Usnea
 stirtoniana
2.9   2.0 4.6a 3.7 36.0i Lichenin and/or
Isolichenin
4.5 160k     773 90 30   Lal and
Ranganatha
Rao 1956
Ramalina
 sinensis
4.6   0.2 6.8a 4.1 52.0i Lichenin and/or
Isolichenin
6.3 140k     1022 150 81   Lal and
Ranganatha
Rao 1956
Peltigera
 canina
8.7   0.1 21.3a 17.5 --- Lichenin and/or
Isolichenin
4.4 430k     486 235 49   Lal and
Ranganatha
Rao 1956
Roccella
montagnei
4.4   1.0 14.2a 12.9 15.0i Isolichenin 3.7 750k     394 145 46   Lal and
Ranganatha
Rao 1956
Lichen       1 to 8                       Dannfelt
Lichen 2.64                             Pringsheim &
Kusenack
Tall
 Lichensb
                0d 0d Mored         Ellis et al.
Short
 Lichensc
                0d Pres-
entd
Lessd         Ellis et al.
Lichen species Ash
%
Fat
%
Ether
Extract-
ives
%
Protein
g/100g
Crude
Fiber
%
Carbo-
hydrates
%
Type of Carbohydrate Vit. C
mg/
100g
Vit. B
g/100g or
mg/
100g
Vit. A Vit. D Ca
mg/
100g
P
mg/
100g
Fe
mg/
100g
Other Reference
Aspicilia
 esculenta
          23, 11 Lichenin               calcium
oxalatep
Crum 1993
Lichen               Pres-
entg
              Bourne and
Allen 1935
Lichene 20.7   4.8 6.4f 13.2             370 9     Beeson et al
 (1972)
Bryoria spp.       7.77                       Llano 1944b
Umbilicaria pennsylvanica       6.27                       Llano 1944b
Cetraria islandica 1.7h 2.4h   0   0                   Chatfield and
Adams (1940)
Cetraria
 islandica
1 to 2 2.6   3   Over 80% Isolichenin and Lichenin 750       4.8 50.0 53.0 Pb, Hg, Cdn Airaksinen et
 al. 1986
Cetraria
 islandica
2.2 1.2   0.32   48.6                   Swartz 1911
Cladina spp.                       5.15 610.0 79.0 Pb, Hg, Cdo Airaksinen et
 al. 1986
Cetraria
 islandica
          61-66                   Llano 1944a,
 1944b
Cladina
 rangiferina
1.4j 2.1j   5.4j 32.9j       501j,l             Barberie
1946
Cladina
 rangiferina
      1 to 5   <66                   Llano 1944b
Peltigera
 canina
      21m         Pres-
entk
      Pres-
ent
    Subramanian
and
Ramakrishnan 1964
a Kjeldahl (N x 6.25)
b Tall lichens were a mixture of: Cetraria islandica, Cetraria cucullata, Cladonia alpestris, Cladonia gracilis elongata, Cladonia uncialis, Cladonia amaurocraea forma, and Cladonia sylvatica sylvestris.
c Short lichens were a mixture of: Alectoria nigricans, Alectoria ochroleuca, Cetraria nivalis, Cetraria hiascens, Cladonia bellidiflora  hookeri, Cladonia gracilis dilatata, Lobaria linita, Nephroma arcticum, Parmelia physodes, Peltigera spp., Stereocaulon tomentosum, and Thamnolia vermicularis.
d Vitamins were measured with feeding experiments
e Probably Cladonia rangiferina
f Roughly 3% digestible by livestock
g Determined with the acetic acid Ð silver nitrate test
h Samples recalculated for % dry weight, original measurement included 13.7% water
i Only lichenin and isolichenin measured
j Samples recalculated for % dry weight, original measurement included 19.2% water
k Riboflavin in g/100g
l Niacin in mg/100g
m Contains 13 amino acids, including 8 out of 9 essential amino acids
n In units of mg/kg of lichen: Pb=30, Hg=0.075, Cd=0.30
o In units of mg/kg of lichen: Pb=30, Hg=0.12, Cd=0.20
p Percent calcium oxalate: 66 or 60

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