Table 3.  A summary of lichens being used as dyes
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LICHEN REGION COLOUR MATERIAL EXTRACTION
METHOD
REFERENCE
Arctoparmelia centrifuga Britaina, arcticb Red-brown Woolens   Uphof 1959a; Brodo et al. 2001b
Aspicilia calcarea Sweden, Britain Red-brown, crimson Woolens Ammonia fermentation Uphof 1959
Aspicilia cinerea England Crimson-red Woolens Ammonia fermentation Uphof 1959
Bacidia spp. Europe Red Woolens   Uphof 1959
Bryoria spp. England Pale green to brown-red Woolens   Uphof 1959
Bryoria spp. ??Coastal Salish Yellow   Mixed with Letharia vulpina Ravenhill 1938
Bryoria capillaries Haisla, Hanaksiala   Wood Burned into black powder and used as paint Compton 1993
Buellia subsoriroides Garhwali: India Orange Skin Rubbed with saliva Lal and Upreti 1995
Caloplaca saxicola Sweden Yellow Woolens   Uphof 1959
Candelariella vitellina Sweden Yellow Woolens   Uphof 1959
Cetraria aculeata Scotland, Canary Islands Red-brown Woolens   Uphof 1959
Chrysothrix chlorina Scandinavia Brown Woolens   Uphof 1959


Cladonia coccifera
Europe Red-purple     Uphof 1959
Cladonia fimbriata Europe? Red Woolens   Uphof 1959
Cladonia gracilis Europe? Ash-green Woolens   Uphof 1959
Cladonia pyxidata Europe? Ash-green Woolens   Uphof 1959
Dermatocarpon miniatum Europe Ash-green Woolens   Uphof 1959
Diploschistes scruposus England Red-brown Woolens Ammonia fermentation Uphof 1959
Everniastrum cirrhatum Peru Beige-yellow Traditional textiles   Mullins 1973
Flavocetraria nivalis Europe Violet Woolens   Uphof 1959
Flavoparmelia caperata Isle of Man Brown-orange to lemon-yellow Woolens   Uphof 1959
Flavopunctelia soredica Navajo Flesh-colour Weaves   Sharnoff 1997
Lasallia pustulata Norway and Germany Red, purple, and brown Woolens Ammonia fermentation Uphof 1959
Lepraria iolithus Scandinavia Brown Woolens   Uphof 1959
Letharia vulpina Interior and coastal British Columbia, Alberta, Montana, California, Yellow Basket materials, fur, moccasins, feathers, porcupine quills, wood Boiling water Numerous references, see Part II
Letharia vulpina Nlaka'pamux: BCa; Yuki: Californiab Yellow Skin Wet lichen thallus and used as paint Turner 1998a; Chestnut 1902b
Letharia vulpina Sweden, Norway Yellow Woolens   Uphof 1959
Lobaria pulmonaria Britain, Scandinavia Orange-brown Woolens   Uphof 1959
Melanelia  acebatulum Northern Ireland Orange brown Homespuns and Harris Tweed   Uphof 1959
Melanelia commixta Europe Red-brown Woolens   Uphof 1959
Melanelia olivacea Britain Brown Woolens   Uphof 1959; Brodo et al. 2001
Melanelia stygia Britain Brown Woolens   Uphof 1959; Brodo et al. 2001
Nephroma parile Scotland Blue Woolens   Uphof 1959
Ochrolechia parella France, Britain Violet Woolens Ammonia fermentation Uphof 1959
Ochrolechia tartarea Sweden, Scotland Red or Crimson Yarn and cloth Ammonia fermentation Uphof 1959
Ophioparma lapponica Sweden Red-browna; Purple red to magentab Woolens   Uphof 1959a; Brodo et al. 2001b
Parmelia omphalodes Scotlanda,b, Scandinaviaa, Irelanda Purple to crimsona; Red-brown to rusty orangeb   Boiling waterb Uphof 1959a; Brodo et al. 2001b
Parmelia saxatilis Scotlanda,b, western  Irelanda Red-brown to rusty orangea,b; Yellowa   Boiling waterb Uphof 1959a; Brodo et al. 2001b
Pertusaria spp. France Violet Woolens   Uphof 1959
Pertusaria corallina Scotland Red-purple Woolens   Uphof 1959
Pertusaria pseudocorallina Norway and Sweden Red-purple Woolens   Uphof 1959
Physconia distorta Europe Yellow Woolens   Uphof 1959
Platismatia glauca Europe Chamois Woolens   Uphof 1959
Pseudocyphellaria  aurata Britain, Scandinavia   Woolens   Uphof 1959
Pseudocyphellaria crocata Europe?a, Europeb Browna, yellowb Woolens   Uphof 1959a; Brodo et al. 2001b
Punctelia borreria Dakota Yellow Porcupine quills Boiling water Gilmore 1911
Ramalina spp. Peru Yellow Traditional textiles   Herrera 1941
Ramalina spp. India, Europe       Brodo et al. 2001
Ramalina calicaris Europe Yellow-red Woolens   Uphof 1959
Ramalina farinacea Europe Light brown Woolens   Uphof 1959
Ramalina polymorpha Europe Light brown Woolens   Uphof 1959
Ramalina scopulorum Scotland Yellow brown to red brown Woolens Boiling water (1 day) Uphof 1959
Rhizocarpon geographicum Scandinavia Brown Woolens   Uphof 1959
Roccella fuciformis France, England Purple-crimson or red-yellow silk, woolens, carpet yarns, wood, marble   Uphof 1959
Roccella montagnei Italy, Germany       Uphof 1959
Roccella phycopsis     British broadcloth, thermometers   Uphof 1959
Roccella tinctoria Europe       Uphof 1959
Solorina crocea Scotland Yellow Woolens   Uphof 1959
Stereocaulon paschale Europe Ash-green Woolens   Uphof 1959
Teloschistes flavicans Germany Yellow Woolens   Uphof 1959
Teloschistes vermicularis?? Peru Yellow to orange Traditional textiles   Antœnez de Mayolo 1989
Umbilicaria spp. Europe Purple Woolens   Uphof 1959
Umbilicaria cylindrica Iceland Green-brown Woolens   Uphof 1959
Umbilicaria deusta Sweden Purple Woolens, paint   Uphof 1959
Umbilicaria velea Sweden Violet Woolens   Uphof 1959
Usnea spp. ??Coast Salish: BC ??Dark green     ??Ravenhill 1938
Usnea spp. Europe Orange-red Woolens   Uphof 1959
Usnea barbata Peru Dark blue Traditional textiles   Lira, 1940
Usnea barbata Europe? Orange-red Woolens   Uphof 1959
Usnea florida Europe Green-yellow or red brown Woolens   Uphof 1959
Usnea hirta Navajo: New Mexico Flesh coloured Weaves   Suminski 1994
Usnea plicata Europe Green or yellow Woolens   Uphof 1959
Usnea scabrata?? Dakota Yellow Porcupine quills Boiling water Gilmore 1911
Vulpicida spp. Scandinavia Yellow Woolens   Uphof 1959
Vulpicida canadensis Gitksan: BC   Mountain goat wool   Smith 1926
Vulpicida pinastri Europe Green Woolens   Uphof 1959
Xanthoparmelia spp. Navajo: New Mexico Beige     Suminski 1994
Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis India Pale rose Calico cloth   Uphof 1959
Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa Navajo: New Mexico Warm brown Weaves   Henio 1995
Xanthoparmelia conspersa Europe Red-brown Woolens   Uphof 1959
Xanthoria candelaria Sweden Yellow Woolens   Uphof 1959
Xanthoria parietina England, Scotland Yellow Woolens, Easter eggs   Uphof 1959
Unidentified lichens, yellow and black Haisla and other coastal peoples: BC   Paint for spoons, bowls, and totem poles Powdered and mixed with salmon eggs Turner 1998

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