ES 321


Units: 1.5

Hours: 3-0

Environmental knowledge systems of indigenous and other local peoples are increasingly recognized as having relevance in understanding and documenting biological diversity and conservation and in undertaking ecological restoration. The different aspects of local and traditional ecological knowledge and their relationships to western academic knowledge are reviewed and the issues and requirements for applying local knowledge in environmental sustainability are explored.


  • ES 200 with a minimum grade of B-; and
  • minimum second-year standing; or
  • permission of the school.

Undergraduate course in Environmental Studies offered by the School of Environmental Studies in the Faculty of Social Sciences.

Summer Fall Spring

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