ES 341

Past, Present, and Future Ecologies

Units: 1.5

Hours: 3-0

Formerly: also ER 311

Explores how ideas and practices about ecosystems and nature more generally have come to be in the early 21st century, how they are manifest in the present, and what trends will shape the future. Rapid environmental, ecological and cultural changes are forcing a reconsideration of how we understand nature and natural processes, and how to intervene responsibly in ecosystems. Themes are drawn from landscape and community ecology, systems ecology, ethnoecology, restoration ecology, and political ecology.


  • Credit will be granted for only one of ES 341, ES 352, ES 400D (if taken in Sep-Dec 1995 or Jan-Apr 1996), ER 311 (if taken prior to May 2015).


  • ES 200 with a minimum grade of B- and ES 240; and
  • minimum second-year standing; or
  • permission of the school.

Undergraduate course in Environmental Studies offered by the School of Environmental Studies in the Faculty of Social Sciences.

Summer Fall Spring

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