ES 441

Advanced Principles and Practice in Ecological Restoration

Units: 1.5

Hours: 3-0

Also: ER 411

An advanced investigation into the meaning, limits, and significance of ecological restoration, including: how restoration is defined and why clear definitions are important; the role of historical knowledge in restoration; the changing character of restoration in a technological culture; ethical issues in restoration practice; participation and political process; cultural inclusion and the significance of restoration as a cultural mode; the international scope of restoration; and the paradox of design.


  • Credit will be granted for only one of ES 441, ES 482 (if taken in the same topic), ER 411.


Undergraduate course in Environmental Studies offered by the School of Environmental Studies in the Faculty of Social Sciences.

Summer Fall Spring

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