Processor organization: general-purpose and application-specific processors, datapath and control implementation, pipelining concepts. Memory organization: static and dynamic semiconductor memory, optical and magnetic memory, memory hierarchy and caches. I/O organization: physical and logic interfaces, interrupts and interrupt services routines, direct memory access (DMA), device drivers. Buses and protocols: bus signalling and arbitration, examples of modern buses, communications protocol concepts. Computer networking: network topologies, protocol stack, examples of modern networks.