ES 384

Systems Theory: An Introduction to Natural and Social Systems

Units: 1.5

Hours: 3-0-0

Formerly: ES 414

Enables each participant to grasp the fundamental principles of systems theory, and provides a foundation for further exploration and application of systems concepts. Examines concepts such as cybernetics, holism, boundaries, negative and positive feedback, self-organization and transformation. Students will learn to apply these principles to both natural and social systems.


  • Credit will be granted for only one of ES 384, ES 400D (if taken in Sep 1989 - Apr 1990), ES 414.


Undergraduate course in Environmental Studies offered by the School of Environmental Studies in the Faculty of Social Sciences.

Fall 2019 Spring 2020 Summer 2020

Summer timetable available: February 15. Fall and Spring timetables available: May 15.

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