The Integrated Message Model
Our integrated message model  identifies specific visible behaviours (at present, hand gestures, facial displays, and gaze) that are tightly synchronized with words in both timing and meaning. These combine, moment by moment, into integrated messages that may be complementary and complex but are rarely incongruent. (We reject terms like “body language” or “the nonverbals,” which treat actions that are not verbal as separate from speech and as revealing hidden meanings, such as emotion, attitudes, or deception.)