Wave Breaking, Wave-induced Turbulence, Langmuir Circulation

Johannes Gemmrich

Wave breaking probability

Normalized occurrence rate of wave breaking as a function of energy input from the wind into the wave field. Commonly applied scalings of wave breaking occurrence against wind speed, or wave age do not collapses these data from various wave conditions (see Gemmrich & Farmer 1999, JPO.)


Thomson, J., M. S. Schwendeman, S. F. Zippel, S. Moghimi, J. Gemmrich, and W. E. Rogers, 2016: 'Wave breaking turbulence in the ocean surface layer'. J. Phys. Oceanog., 46 : 1857-1870, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-15-0130.1 [pdf ]

Banner, M. L., Zappa, C. J. and Gemmrich, J. R., 2014: 'A Note on the Phillips Spectral Framework for Ocean Whitecaps'. J. Phys. Oceanog., 44, : 1727-1734. [pdf ]

Schwendeman, M., Thomson, J. and Gemmrich, J. R., 2014: 'Wave Breaking Dissipation in a Young Wind Sea'. J. Phys. Oceanog., 44, : 104-127. [pdf ]

Gemmrich, J. R., C. Zappa, M.L. Banner and R.P. Morison, 2013: 'Wave breaking in developing and mature seas'. J. Geophys. Res, 118, 4542 - 4552 [pdf ]

Gemmrich, J., 2012: ' Bubble-induced turbulence suppression in Langmuir circulation.' Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L10604, doi:10.1029/2012GL051691. [pdf ]

Vagle, S., J. Gemmrich, and H. Czerski, 2012: 'Reduced upper ocean turbulence and changes to bubble size distribution during large downward heat-flux events.' J. Geophys. Res., 117, doi:10.1029/2011JC007308. [preprint ]

Gemmrich, J. R., 2010: 'Strong turbulence in the wave crest region.' J. Phys. Oceanog., 40, 583 - 595. [pdf ]

Thomson, J., J.R. Gemmrich, and A.T. Jessup, 2009. 'Energy dissipation and the spectral distribution of whitecaps'. Geophys. Res. Let. 36(L11601): doi: 10.1029/2009GL038201 [pdf ]

Gemmrich, J. R., M.L. Banner and C. Garrett, 2008: 'Spectrally resolved energy dissipation rate and momentum flux of breaking waves'. J. Phys. Oceanog. 38, 1296-1312. [pdf ]

Burchard, H., P.D. Craig, J.R. Gemmrich, H. van Haren, P.-P. Mathieu, H.E.M. Meier, W. A.M. Nimmo Smith, H. Prandke, T.P. Rippeth, E.D. Skyllingstad, W.D. Smyth, D.J.S. Welsh, and H.W. Wijesekera, 2008: 'Observational and numerical modeling methods for quantifying coastal ocean turbulence and mixing', Progr. Oceanogr., 76, 399-442. [pdf ]

Gemmrich, J: 2007: 'Momentum flux and energy dissipation associated with breaking waves', in Transport at the air-sea interface, eds. Garbe, C., R. Handler and B. Jähne. Springer Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, 131 - 142.

Gemmrich, J, 2006: 'The spectral scale of wave breaking', Proceedings 9th International Workshop on Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting. [pdf ] [workshop ]

Gemmrich, J, 2006: 'Breaking waves and near surface turbulence', Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, eds. Steele, J.H., S.A. Thorpe and K.K Turekian, Elsevier. [pdf ]

Gemmrich, J., 2005: 'On the occurrence of wave breaking'. In: 14th 'Aha Huliko'a Hawaiian Winter Workshop on Rogue Waves, January 2005, 123-130. [pdf ] [workshop ]

Gemmrich, J. R. and D. M. Farmer, 2004: 'Near-surface turbulence in the presence of breaking waves'. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 34, 1067-1086. [pdf ]

Banner, M. L., Gemmrich, J. R. and D. M. Farmer, 2002: 'Multi-scale measurements of ocean wave breaking probability'. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 32, 3364-3375. [pdf ]

Gemmrich, J. R, 2000: 'Temperature anomalies beneath breaking waves and the decay of wave-induced turbulence'. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, 8727-8736 [pdf ]

Gemmrich, J. R, and D. M. Farmer, 1999: 'Temperature anomalies beneath breaking waves and the decay of wave-induced turbulence - Extended abstract'. In: The wind-driven air-sea interface. Electromagnetic and acoustic sensing, wave dynamics and turbulent fluxes. Ed. M. L. Banner, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. 193-194.

Gemmrich, J. R. and D. M. Farmer, 1999: 'Observations of the scale and occurrence of breaking surface waves'. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29, 2595-2606 [pdf ]

Gemmrich, J. R. and D. M. Farmer, 1999: 'Near-surface turbulence and thermal structure in a wind driven sea'. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29, 480-499 [pdf ]

Farmer, D., J. Gemmrich and V. Polonichko, 1998: 'Velocity, temperature and spatial structure of Langmuir circulation'. Physical Processes in Lakes and Oceans, J. Imberger, Ed., Coastal and Estuary Studies, 54, AGU

Farmer, D. M. and J. R. Gemmrich, 1996: 'Measurements of temperature fluctuations in breaking surface waves'. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 5, 816-825 [pdf ]

Gemmrich, J. R., T. D. Mudge and V. D. Polonichko, 1994: 'On the energy input from wind to surface waves'. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24, 2413-2417 [pdf ] [corrigendum ]

Last Modified: August 12, 2016
Johannes Gemmrich - gemmrich@uvic.ca