Description of Teaching Styles
Description – Students reproduce a specific set of outcomes on cue. The teacher makes the pre-impact, impact, and post-impact decisions. There is also a direct and immediate relationship between the teacher’s stimulus and the learner’s response.
When used – This teaching style will be used when a specific set of outcomes is desired. Within this squash unit, the command style will be used when introducing rules and safety precautions.
Reason for using this style – This style will be used within this unit because there is only one set of rules and safety precautions for the students to follow, therefore there it is not necessary for the students to discover these concepts on their own.
Strength – One of the strengths of using this style of teaching is that it is a quick and efficient way to get through a certain task.
Weakness – A weakness when using this teaching style is that all of the students must do a task at the same proficiency level. Also the teacher is tied up and not available to give personal feedback.
Description – The teacher demonstrates a specific task and the students practice on their own time while making nine specific decisions. The decisions are: Location, order of tasks, starting time per task, pace and rhythm, stopping time per task, interval, initiating questions for clarification, attire and appearance and posture. The teacher then makes direct and individual feedback.
When used – This teaching style will be used when a certain task must be performed according to a specific model, which also involves the students need for direct feedback. This teaching style will also be used when the students are able to perform the task, however at various levels. Within this squash unit, the practice style will be used when the students are working on the forehand and backhand strokes.
Reason for using this style – This style will be used to introduce the forehand and backhand strokes because it aids in the development of precision and accuracy.
Strength – The strength of this style of teaching is that it allows students to work at their own proficiency level. This style also allows for individual feedback from the teacher.
Weakness – A weakness of the practice style is that the students must be able to do a specific task on their own without being guided. Also, the students may not be challenged with the task at hand and the students may not independently challenge themselves.
Example task sheet
Description – A pair of students are given a task card describing the progression of the skill. While the doer is performing the skill, the observer is providing immediate, constructive and positive feedback. The teacher is available to answer the observer’s questions and provides the observer with feedback. This style is good for both doer and observer, for as the doer is receiving constant feedback, the observer is learning through observation.
When used – This style is used when it is important to have immediate feedback through social interaction. Within this unit, the reciprocal style will be used when introducing the grip, the ready position, and the spin.
Reason for using this style – This style will be used because it allows more time for the teacher to circulate around the gymnasium and provide further feedback to the observer. This teaching style is also used because the tasks are quite simple; therefore, the feedback is most likely to be correct.
Strengths – One of the strengths of the reciprocal style is that it allows for continuous feedback. Also, the students who are observing will be able to learn from watching and correcting their partner’s mistakes. Social skills are also greatly enhanced by the interaction between the students.
Weakness – One of the weaknesses that occur in this teaching style is that the feedback offered to the students may not always be accurate.
Description – A student is given a criteria sheet in order to work independently on performing a task. The students also engage in self-assessment. The teacher is available to answer questions posed by the learners.
When used – This style will be used when the student has a basic proficiency in a skill. It will also be used when the skill can be broken down into subsequent parts. Within this squash unit, the self-check style will be used when learning the lob serve.
Reason for using this style – This style will be used because it allows the students a chance to evaluate their own performance which helps them to remember the single actions in a whole movement.
Strength – One of the strengths of this teaching style is that it helps students retain cues through self-diagnosis. Also the students will be able to engage in independent practice.
Weakness – In order to use this teaching style, the students must have a basic proficiency of the skill. Also, the skill must be able to be broken down into subsequent parts.
Example criteria sheet
Description – Students are given a task card with various levels of difficulty within a single task. The learners decide their personal entry level on the sheet and how fast they choose to progress through the levels. Once the learner has completed a task, they mark it down on the sheet and progress to the next level of choice.
When used – This style will be used when there is a widespread capability among the students within a class. Within this squash unit, the inclusion style will be used to develop the forehand and backhand shot.
Reason for using this style – This style will be used because it will accommodate and include the many proficiency levels of the skill within the class. Since the students are ranging from beginner to very experienced, this style is necessary.
Strength – The strengths of the inclusion style is that it allows for mass participation, maximum improvement and the learner is allowed their own skill level choice.
Weakness – One of the weaknesses of this style is that the students may not have the ability to properly assess their own skill level. Peer pressure may also play a role in the student’s decision on their entry point. As well, safety may become an issue if the students do not properly assess their ability.
Description – The teacher develops a series of logically designed questions to give to the learner. The learner works through the questions in sequence, and each answer leads to the next question. Eventually, the student will come to realize a predetermined concept. The teacher acknowledges when the correct concepts are discovered.
When used – This style will be used when it is necessary for the students to realize the rational behind choosing one particular body position or a positioning requirement in an activity over another. Within this unit, guided discovery will be used when introducing the volley.
Reason for using this style – This style will be used because it is a quick and efficient way to get students motivated. Also, deciding when it is appropriate to perform a volley makes more sense to students when they have solved the problem on their own.
Strength – One of the strengths of this teaching style is that is forces the students to problem solve. Independent problem solving will more likely lead the learners to remember particular aspects of a skill.
Weakness – One of the weaknesses of guided discovery is that not all of the students may engage in the problem solving process. Students may wait until their peers answer the questions.
Description – The teacher develops a single question for all of the students to answer. The question has multiple responses and it is up to the students to discover multiple solutions.
When used –This teaching will be used when it is possible to expand on the alternative possibilities of a given task. Within the squash unit, divergent discovery will be used when introducing various strategies and tactics involved in a squash match.
Reason for using this style –This style will be used because it involves designing many movement combinations. Many tactics and strategies exist within a squash match and the students can discover what works best for them.
Strength – The strength of this teaching style is that it gives the students confidence and motivation because the solutions they come up are never totally incorrect.
Weakness – The weakness of this style of teaching is that the students will require a lot of time to discover their ideas.