Viviene Temple, Phd
I am a professor in the School of Exercise Science, Physical and Health Education at the University of Victoria in British Columbia, Canada.
Inclusive Physical Activity
We know that children need specific tools in order to be active (i.e., movement skills), as well as access to environments that support their participation in physical activity. My work focuses on optimizing participation in physical activity by children, particularly children with special needs. One approach that I take is to evaluate existing community programs with the intention of sharing information about, and encouraging the use of, effective approaches to fostering the development of movement skills and engagement in physical activity. This research has included the evaluation of community-based programs for children with special needs participating in indoor rock climbing, bicycle riding, dragon boating, and inclusive equestrian vaulting and therapeutic riding. I also develop and evaluate new programs. In recent years these programs have included the Healthy Opportunities for Preschoolers program; as well as programs for youth with intellectual disabilities such as the InclusionWorks! for a Healthy Lifestyle program and the Team Up for Fitness program.
I am the Program Lead of the BA (Recreation and Health Education) Program offered by the School of Exercise Science, Physical and Health Education.
My current teaching responsibilities include:
EPHE 200 – Introduction to Professional Pratice
Introduces workplace professional practice expectations and provides learners with the opportunity to develop professional skills, using computer applications to search for information, collecting, storing and analyzing data, creating professional communications and writing professional reports.
EPHE 350 – Children and Youth with Special Needs in Physical Activities
An introduction to the development, implementation, and assessment of inclusive physical activity programs for learners with disabilities.
EPHE 445 – Developmental and Adaptive Physical Activity
In this course we discuss the philosophical bases of inclusion and relevant theories, concepts, and models. We explore the process of inclusion, universal design, and how person-related factors interact with contextual factors to influence participation.
My research focuses on understanding the levels and determinants of obesity and physical activity participation among persons with intellectual disability. I am working with colleagues on secondary analyses of body mass index and waist circumference data from the Health Promotion database of Special Olympics International.
I recently began a national evaluation of the Active Start (2-6 years) and FUNdamentals (7-12 years) programs for Special Olympics Canada.
I am currently evaluating outcomes of inclusive equestrian vaulting and therapeutic riding.
My research focuses on optimizing participation in physical activity by children, particularly children with disabilities. One approach that I take is to evaluate existing community programs with the intention of sharing information about effective approaches with the community. This research has included the evaluation of community-based indoor rock climbing and dragon boating programs and currently, adapted equestrian vaulting. The adapted equestrian adapted vaulting program evaluation was initiated by the Cowichan Therapeutic Riding Association.
Emadirad, E., Temple, B. W. N., Field, S. C., Naylor, P., & Temple. V. A.(2021). Motor skills and participation in middle childhood: A direct path for boys, a mediated path for girls. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2020-0296
Santos, R., Lopes, L., Coelho-e-Silva, M. J., Draper, C., Mota, J., Jidovtseff. B., Clark, C. C.T., Schmidt, M., Morgan, P. J., Duncan, M. J., O’Brien, W., Bentsen, P., D’Hondt, E., Houwen, S., Stratton, G., De Martelaer K., Scheuer. C., Herrmann, C., García-Hermoso, A., Ramírez-Vélez, R., Palmeira, A. L., Gerlach, E., Rosário, R., Issartel, J., Esteban-Cornejo, I., Ruiz, J., Veldman, S. L. C., Zhang, Z., Colella, D., Póvoas, S., Haibach-Beach, P., Pereira, J. R., McGrane, B., Saraiva, J. P., Temple, V. A., Silva, P. M., Sigmund, E., Sousa-Sá, E., Adamakis, M., Moreira, C., Utesch, T., True, L., Cheung, P., Carcamo-Oyarzun, J., Charitou, S., Chillón, P., Robazza, C., Silva, D. R. P., Rodrigo A. L., Mourão-Carvalhal, I., Khodaverdi, Z., Almeida, M., Pereira, B., Prista, A., & Agostinis-Sobrinho, C. (2021). A Narrative Review of Motor Competence in Children and Adolescents: What we Know and What we Need to Find Out. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18, 18. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010018
Stuart-Hill, L., Ryan, P., St.John, L., Rintala, P., & Temple, V. (2020, Dec). Heart rate responses during the modified six-minute walk test among Special Olympics athletes. Turkish Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.47447/tjsm.0493
Field, S. C., Crane, J. R., Naylor, P., & Temple, V. A. (2020, Dec). A longitudinal examination of the accuracy of perceived physical competence in middle childhood. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 8(3), 457-474. https://doi.org/10.1123/jmld.2019-0045
Field, S. C., Esposito Bosma, C., & Temple, V. A. (2020, Apr). Comparability of the Test of Gross Motor Development–Second edition and the Test of Gross Motor Development–Third edition. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 8(1), 107-125. https://doi.org/10.1123/jmld.2018-0058
McConnell-Nzunga, J., Weatherson, K.A., Masse, L., Carson, V., Faulkner, G., Lau, E., McKay, H., Temple, V., Wolfenden, L., & Naylor, P. (2020, Apr). Child care setting and its association with policies and practices that promote physical activity and physical literacy in the early years in British Columbia. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 17(4), 429-434. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2019-0215
McConnell-Nzunga, J., Mâsse, L. C., Buckler, E. J., Carson, V., Faulkner, G. E., Lau, E. Y., Mckay, H. A., Temple, V. A., Wolfenden, L., & Naylor, P. (2020, Feb). Prevalence and relationships among physical activity policy, environment and practices in licensed childcare centers from a manager and staff perspective. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(3), 1064-1078. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031064
Temple, V. A., Achtem, E., Sangret, H., Bouthillier, S., & Stuart-Hill, L. (2019, Dec). A formative evaluation of an inclusive introductory equestrian vaulting camp. PALAESTRA, 33(4), 33-39.
Temple, V. A., Alston, K. F., Elder, J. J., & Stuart-Hill, L. (2019, Apr). The effect of a pacer versus no-pacer on submaximal fitness test results among Special Olympics athletes. European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, 12(5), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.5507/euj.2019.005
Temple, V. A., Lefebvre, D. L., Field, S. C., Crane, J. R., Smith, B., & Naylor, P. (2019, Apr). Object Control Skills Mediate the Relationship Between Neighborhood Vulnerability and Participation in Physical Activities. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 7, 49-63. https://doi.org/10.1123/jmld.2017-0046
Crane, J. R., Naylor, PJ., & Temple, V. A. (2018, Sept). The Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Patterns of Children in Kindergarten and Grade 2. Children, 5, 131-142. https://doi.org/10.3390/children5100131
Lloyd, M., Foley, J. T., Temple, V. A. (2018, Jan). Maximizing the use of Special Olympics International’s Healthy Athletes database: A call to action research in developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 73, 58-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2017.12.009
Müller, U., Temple, V., Smith, B., Kerns, K., Ten Eycke, K., Crane, J., & Sheehan, J. (2017, Aug). Effects of Nature Kindergarten Attendance on Children’s Functioning. Children, Youth and Environments, 27(2), 47-69. https://doi.org/10.7721/chilyoutenvi.27.2.0047
Temple, V. A., Guerra, D., Larocque, L., Crane, J. R., Sloan, E., & Stuart-Hill, L. (2017, Aug). Fundamental motor skills in the first year of school: Associations with prematurity and disability. European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, 10(1), 3-9.
Crane, J. R., Foley, J. T., Naylor, PJ., & Temple, V. A. (2017, Aug). Longitudinal change in the relationship between fundamental motor skills and perceived competence: Kindergarten to Grade 2. Sports, 5, 59-68. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports5030059
Santarossa, S., Temple, V. A., Rintala, P., M. Lloyd., & DeMarco, B., & John T. Foley. (2017, Aug). Muscular Strength of Adult Special Olympians by Country Economic Status. European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, 10(1), 10-16.
Frey, G. C., Temple, V. A., & Stanish, H. I. (2017, Jul/Aug). Interventions to promote physical activity for youth with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review. Salud Pública de México, 59(4), 437-445. https://doi.org/10.21149/8203
Temple, V. A., Frey, G. C., & Stanish, H. I. (2017, Jul/Aug). Interventions to promote physical activity for adults with intellectual disabilities. Salud Pública de México, 59(4), 446-453. https://doi.org/10.21149/8218
Foley, J. T., Lloyd, M., Turner, L., & Temple, V. A. (2017, Jul/Aug). Body mass index and waist circumference of adults with intellectual disability participating in Special Olympics in Latin America. Salud Pública de México, 59(4), 416-422. https://doi.org/10.21149/8204
Rozak, K., Foley, J. T., MacDonald, C., Bryan, R., Lloyd, M., & Temple, V. A. (2017, Jul). Physical activity frequency of Special Olympic athletes aged 8-18 across economic status. European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, 10(2), 14-19. https://doi.org/10.5507/euj.2017.006
Temple, V. A., & Foley, J. T. (online 2017, Jun). A peek at the developmental validity of the Test of Gross Motor Development–3. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 5, 5-14. https://doi.org/10.1123/jmld.2016-0005
Field, S. C. & Temple, V. A. (2017, Jun). The relationship between fundamental motor skill proficiency and participation in organized sports and active recreation in middle childhood. Sports, 5, 43. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports502004
Rintala, P., Temple, V. A., Lloyd, M., Faro, C., & Foley, J. T. (online 2017, May 29). Association of poverty and social exclusion with body mass index among Special Olympics athletes in Europe. International Journal of Public Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-017-0982-5
Adamo, K. B., Wilson, S., Harvey, A. L. J., Grattan, K., Naylor, PJ., Temple, V. A., Goldfield, G. S. (2016, Aug). Does intervening in childcare settings impact fundamental movement skill development? Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 48(5), pp. 926-932. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26656776
Goldfield, G., Harvey, A. L., Grattan, K; Temple, V. A., Naylor, PJ., Alberga, A. S., Ferraro, Z. M., Wilson, S., Cameron, J. D., & Adamo, K. B. (2016, Aug). Effects of child care intervention on physical activity and body composition. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 51(2), 225-231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2016.03.024
Hundza, S., Quartly, C., Kim, J. M., Dunnett, J., Dobrinsky, J., Loots, I., Choy, K., Chow, B., Hampshire, A., & Temple, V. A. (online 2016, Jan). Similar barriers and facilitators to physical activity across different clinical groups experiencing lower limb spasticity. Disability and Rehabilitation, 38(14), 1370-1381. https://doi.org/10.3109/09638288.2015.1101789
Sulz, L., Temple, V., & Gibbons, S. (2016). Measuring Student Motivation in High School Physical Education: Development and Validation of Two Self-Report Questionnaires. The Physical Educator, 73(3). https://doi.org/10.18666/TPE-2016-V73-I3-6370
Temple, V. A., Purves, P. L., Misovic, R., Lewis, C., & DeBoer, C. (2016, Jan). Barriers and facilitators for generalizing cycling skills learned at camp to home. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 33, 48-65. https://doi.org/10.1123/APAQ.2015-0040
Temple, V. A. Crane, J. R., Brown, A., Williams, B., & Bell, R. I. (2016). Recreational activities and motor skills of children in kindergarten. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 21(3), 268-280. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2014.924494
Temple, V. A. & Crane, J. R. (2016). A systematic review of dropout from soccer among children and youth. Soccer and Society, 17(6), 856-881. https://doi.org/10.1080/14660970.2015.1100901
Temple, V. A., Foley, J. T., & Lloyd, M. (published online 2015, Sep 2). Body Mass Index of Adult Special Olympians by Country Economic Status. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 12(4), 235-311. https://doi.org/10.1111/jppi.12123
Crane, J. R., Naylor, P., Cook, R., & Temple, V. A. (2015, Jul). Do perceptions of competence mediate the relationship between fundamental motor skill proficiency and physical activity levels of children in kindergarten? Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 12(7), 954-961. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2013-0398, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25155099
Crane, J. R. & Temple, V. A. (2015, Feb). Dropout of sport among children and youth: A systematic review. European Physical Education Review, 21(1), 114-131. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X14555294
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Active Start & FUNdamentals Programs
The Active Start and FUNdamentals programs have been temporarily suspended due to social distancing restrictions associated with COVID-19.
Active Start is a family-centered program targeting children with intellectual disabilities ages 2-6. Through the program, children learn basic motor skills such as walking, running, jumping, and throwing in a fun and safe environment.
Skills developed through the Active Start Program include: physical skill acquisition, physical fitness, social skill development, decision making, knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of physical activity.
FUNdamentals is a continuation of the Active Start Program for athletes ages 7-12 (NB, participation in Active Start prior to registering in FUNdamentals is NOT required). This program transitions from basic movement skills to basic sports skills while maintaining an atmosphere of fun and meaningful interaction. This program also promotes specific sports education, proper nutrition, and social inclusion through participation in positive sports experiences.
Skills developed through the FUNdamentals Program include: development of physical literacy skills, improved fundamental motor skills, participation in a structured physical activity, and increased understanding of game structure.
Active Start and FUNdamentals programs are offered once a week in the early evenings at the University of Victoria during the academic term.
Fundamental Motor Skills
Fundamental motor skills, such as the run, leap, catch and overhand throw, form the building blocks that underpin the learning of more complex movement skills that are essential to a physically life. Supporting the development of fundamental motor skill competence in children is one way to promote active participation in physical activity throughout the life span.